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Full text of "Cotton mill, commercial features. A text-book for the use of textile schools and investors"

COTTON MILL, 

COMMERCIAL FEATURES. 



FOR THE USE OF TEXTILE SCHOOLS AND INVESTORS. 



With Tables 

SHOWING COST OF MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENTS FOR MILLS MAKING 
COTTON YARNS AND PLAIN COTTON CLOTHS. 



By D, A. TOMPKINS. 



CHARLOTTE, N. C. 

Published by the Author. 

i8qq. 



Copyright 1899 

BY 

D. A. Tompkins. 



Presses Observer Printir.g House, 
Charlotte, N. C. 



To THE Memory of my Father, 
DR. D. C. TOMPKINS, 

THIS VOLUME IS AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATED. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

NCSU Libraries 



http://www.archive.org/details/cottonmillcommerOOtomp 



IPrcface. 



Before the institution of slavery became fixed as the 
leading feature of the labor system in the cotton growing 
area of the United States, the manufacturing interests in 
this area prospered more than in any other part of the 
country. As the production of cotton with slave labor 
was found to be more profitable and attractive, the insti- 
tution of slavery grew in magnitude and importance, while 
manufacturing interests were neglected and allowed to 
languish. 

The abolition of slavery, as a result of the Civil War, 
completely upset the system of labor previously in vogue. 
The former condition had become a semi-feudal one, with 
such modifications as modern civilization made necessary. 

The aboHtionists went far past the point of reasonable 
good judgment. The slaves were all Africans, or of Afri- 
can descent. Some of the most recently imported ones 
v/ere trained from a savage condition, and all of them 
were without education or training, except for work on a 
plantation. These were at once given the right of suf- 
frage and full rights of citizenship, on terms of equality 
with their former owners. This brought about a condi- 
tion of semi-anarchy, in which the energy of the Anglo- 
Saxon element was sorely taxed to maintain their social 
supremacy and civilizing influence. Nothing prospered 
during the quarter of a century through which this lasted. 
Promptly, however, upon the restoration of stable gov- 
ernment, a revival of manufactures commenced, which has 
grown steadily, and is still growing. 

In my work as engineer, I have had so many inquiries 
from people, living in the cotton growing area, for "full in- 
formation about the cotton manufacturing business," that 
I have prepared this book to supply, to some fair extent, 
the data, and such discussion of the same as, I hope, will 
give a good general idea of the subject. 

D. A. TOMPKINS. 

Charlotte, N. C, October 15, 1899. 



Contente. 

CHAPTER I. 

COTTON AS A FACTOR IN PROGRESS.— 

The Cotton Gin. Old Gin House. Improved Gin 
House. Increase in Cotton Planting. Value of 
seed. 

CHAPTER II. 

VALUES IN COTTON.— 

Cotton Monopoly. Foreign Crops. How to In- 
crease Profits in Cotton Growing. Prosperity of 
Manufacturing Communities. Overproduction. 

CHAPTER III. 

ORGANIZATION OF COMPANY.— 

Subscription List. By-Laws. Salaries. 

CHAPTER IV. 

LOCATION AND SURROUNDINGS.— 
Water Supply. Raw Material. Labor. 

CHAPTER V. 

RAISING CAPITAL.— 

The Installment Plan. By-Laws. Foreign Capital. 

CHAPTER VI. 

INVESTMENTS, COSTS, PROFITS.— 

First Cost of Various Size Mills. Cost of Operation. 
Output. Labor Required. Cotton Consumed. Pro- 
fits. Tables Showing Result of Operations on Dif- 
ferent Kinds of Goods. 



Vll 

CHAPTER VII. 

BOOK-KEEPING AND ACCOUNTING.— 

Mill Book-Keeping Compared with Mercantile 
Book-Keeping. Two Different Series of Books. 
Grouping of Accounts. Mill Reports. Monthly 
Financial Statements. Annual Statements. De- 
preciation. Surplus. Blank Forms. 

CHAPTER VIII. 
LABOR.— 

Vrhite and Colored Operatives. Labor Laws. 
Church and School. 

CHAPTER IX. 

OPERATIVES HOMES.— 

New Designs. Specifications for Modern Cottages. 

CHAPTER X. 
POWER.— 

Relative Cost of Steam and Water Power. Water 
required. Fuel required. Wood Compared with 
Coal. Electric Transmission of Power. 

CHAPTER XL 
SALE OF PRODUCTS.— 

Commission Houses. Commissions Discounts. 
Reclamations. Freight Charges. Blank Forms. 

CHAPTER XII. 
TEXTILE EDUCATION.— 

Foreign Methods. Technical Education in Other 
Lines. Courses of Study. 



Vlll 

CHAPTER XIII. 

ROAD BUILDING AND BROAD TIRES.— 

Good Roads Follow Mill Building. How to Build 
Roads. Relation of Vehicle to Road. Roads in Meck- 
lenburg County, N. C. Convict Labor. Cost of 
Road Building. Cost of Repairs. Government 
Tests. 

CHAPTER XIV. 

MISCELLANEOUS.— 

Insurance and Fire Protection. Standard Equip- 
ments. Mill Construction. Warehouses. Light- 
ing. Heating. Plumbing. Humidifying. Size 
of Buildings. Horse Power Required. Profits. 
Mill Management. 

CHAPTER XV. 

FARM AND FACTORY.— 

Cotton Manufacturing as an Aid to Agriculture. 
Markets .Made for Farm Produce by Factory Opera- 
tives. Food Crops Made Saleable. Cotton a Sur- 
plus Crop. 

CHAPTER XVL 
BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES.— 

CHAPTER XVII. 
STATISTICAL TABLES AND NOTES.— 

APPENDIX. 

ESSAYS ON DOMESTIC INDUSTRY.— 

Written in 1845, b\ William Gregg, of South Caro- 
lina 



CHAPTER I. 

Cotton as a jfactor in iprogrese* 

The development of the production of cotton in the 
Southern States within a single century, from insignifi- 
cant proportions to 11,000,000 bales a year, considered in 
all its relations to our industrial progress, is without a 
parallel in history. First of all, it is a suf^cient answer to 
the charge so often made against the South that its peo- 
ple are without enterprise or mechanical ingenuity. It 
may n^t oe going too far to assert that everything the 
northern part of the Union has accompHshed, put 
together, has not af¥ect^ed the welfare of so many people 
in the world or reached so far in its effects as the develop- 
ment of ihis industry in the South. 

It may be answered. "The South is the only section 
of this country adapted to the production of cotton; if iv 
would grow as well in the North, a different showing 
might have been made by that section." But cotton 
grows in India, in Egypt, in China, and in South America. 
Therefore it may be truly said that a people cannot be 
without enterprise, who, in competition with such a wide- 
spread cotton area, — in many parts of which the plant 
has been cultivated for several centuries — in less than one 
hundred years, are able to show a production far exceed- 
ing that of all the rest of the world. 

In iSro, the cotton crop of the United States amoun- 
ted to about 400,000 bales; in 1892, the yield reached 
nearly 9,000,000 bales. During the greater part of this 
interval of ^2. years, the price has ranged from ten to 
twelve cents per pound. But sometimes the price has 
been as low as five cents, and as high as twenty-seven 
cents, leaving out of account the years of the war (i860 to 
1864.) when the South practically ceased cotton produc- 
tion. Estimating 500 pounds to the bale, and the price 
at ten cents per pound, the crop of 1820 was worth, in 
round numbers, $20,000,000. On the same basis, the 



2 COTTON AS A FACTOR IN PROGRESS. 

crop of 1892 was worth $450,000,000. This great increase 
in cotton production has been made in a section to which 
there has been no such constant tide of immigration as 
has been experienced by other parts of the United States, 
and, for this reason alone, the result reflects great credit 
upon the native population which has accomplished it. 

This wonderful achievement is the result of three thinj4S 
combined, namely: ([) the enterprise and energy of the 
people; (2) the invention of the cotton-gin; and (3) the 
designing; of buildings and mechanical appliances by 
which the gin may be economically operated. 

The Cotton Gin. 

It seems to be the generally accepted opinion that the 
successful production of large cotton crops in the United 
States is due to the invention of the gin alone. While 
this has been an essential element in the problem, yet 
Egypt, India, and South America, which also have the 
advantages of perfected gins, due to the inventions made 
in America, produce cotton neither so cheaply nor in such 
large quantities as it is produced in the Southern States. 

A maciiine having been invented that would separate 
the lint from the seed, there was need at once for a suita- 
ble house in which to operate it, and som.e power to drive 
it. Mule-power was the most available, and wood was 
the moLt suitable material, both for the building and for 
the machinery to be employed in utiHzing the power. 
Therefore, a series of v/ooden wheels, gears, and levers 
were devised by someone whose name is now lost. The 
house was built on posts in such a way that the machinery 
could be operated by mules underneath it. Considering 
the limited facilities ai hand, this running-gear for the 
utilizution of mule-power exhibited marked mechanical 
ingenuity and adaptability, the lack of which, in other 
countries, prevented such results in the production of cot- 
ton as were attained here in ante-bellum days. 

When the gin, the gin-house with its appliances, and 
the baling-screw had all been developed to a condition of 
practical success, the production of cotton then became 
very profitable. The desire to embark in the business 




Fig. I. Diagram of Cotton Gin, with Feeder and Condenser. 



4 COTTON AS A FACTOR IN PROGRESS. 

made a demand for labor and increased the price of slaves. 
The s'.avcs in the Northern States were purchased, and 
still more were needed, which demand was partly supplied 
by the African slave irade, the ships of England and New 
England doing the carrying business. 

Slavery existed in New England about one hundred 
years before it was widespread in the South. Up to the 
time when the inventions just described gave such a stim- 
ulus to cotton planting, general manufactures had pros- 
pered more in the South than in any other part of the 
Union. As late as iSio, according to the United States 
census for that year, the manufactured products of Vir- 
ginia, the Carolinas and Georgia exceeded in variety and 
value those of all New England. While the production 
of cotton remained profitable, the growth of slavery 
gradually stifled Southern manufacturing interests. And 
as another result of slavery no further improvements were 
made in the appliances and the methods of preparing 
cotton for market. The standard ante-bellum gin, gin- 
house, and screw were practically the same in i860 as in 
1820. Many of those of i860 were larger and finer than 
those built a quarter of a century earlier, but there was 
scarcely a new idea in the design. During this period of 
forty years the inheritor of slaves had become an aris- 
tocrat; the cunning mechanical skill of his forefather was 
temporarily lost. But, while lost temporarily, it lived in 
the bones of the people, because no sooner had the late 
war ended, wiping slavery out of existence, than one 
improvement after another in cotton production appeared 
in rapid succession. Before the war mule-power, slave- 
labor, and wooden machinery were in universal use for the 
preparation of cotton for market. Every plantation had 
its gin and gin-house, and, barring only the separation of 
the lint from the seed and baling, all the operations in 
handling cotton were performed by man power. The 
cotton was picked by hand, carried into the gin-house in 
baskets, and to the gin by laborers, and fed to the gin by 
laborers; pushed into the lint room and carried to the 
screw and packed in the box of the screw and bound with 



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6 COTTON AS A FACTOR IN PROGRESS. 

ropes, al! by hand. Slave-labor was abundant and cost so 
little that There was no incentive to improvement. 

After the war a gin feeder was invented to save the 
labor of hand feeding; then a condenser, to save lab6r in 
the Hnt room; then a hand-press that could be operated 
in the lint-room of the gin-house, to save carrjdng the 
cotton to the screw; then a power press, and finally cotton 
elevators, some using spiked belts and some air suction. 

Within thirty years the spirit of enterprise, invention, 
and improvement has again taken possession of the peo- 
ple of the South, and ihey have revolutionized the whole 
method of preparing cotton for market, giving theiratten- 
tion to the perfection of all the machinery and appHances 
relating thereto. The extent of this progress may be rea- 
lized when it is remembered that the cost of ginning 1,500 
pounds of seed cottOTi and of baling the lint is now only 
about one-fifth of what it was in 1870. In the march of 
progress the plantation gin-house and screw have been 
supplanted almost entirely by the modern ginneries, which 
are centrally located and are manufacturing plants rather 
than plantation equipments. Many of them are incor- 
porated ns parts of plants in which the lint is separated 
from the seed and baled, the oil taken from the seed, and 
the cake ground into meal to be used as fertilizer or cat- 
tle-feed, as the markets may demand. 

In almost every community in the South there may 
now be found such manufacturing plants. These gin 
cotton, crush cotton-seed for cotton-seed oil, and mix 
commercial fertilizers. Out of this development has come 
the further business of fattening cattle on cotton-seed 
hulls and cotton-seed meal at the plants, and the prep- 
aration of a stock food made by mixing the meal and hulls 
in suitable proportions and putting the product on the 
market as an article of general merchandise. 

Before the war cotton seed was a waste product; even 
ten years ago the hulls were only used for fuel. Cotton 
seed has been sold as high as $20 per ton and the hulls al 
from 3-^ to $5 per ton. 

At present the most expensive item in the production 






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COTTON AS A FACTOR IN PROGRESS. 



of cotton IS the cost of picking the raw cotton from the 
stalks in the field. The exercise of ingenuity looking 
toward lessening this heavy expense has not been neglec- 
ted. During the last few years, numerous patents have 
been issued for cotton-harvesters, many of which are abso- 
lutely without merit, but some of which are marvelously 
ingenious. One that seems, so far, to have come nearest 
to domg commercially successful work is that of Mr. C. T, 
Mason, of South Carolina. The incentive to the solution 
of this- problem may he seen from the following estimate: 
The price now paid for picking raw cotton from the 
field is from 50 to 75 cents per hundred pounds. About 
1,500 pounds of seed cotton are required to make a bale of 
lint weighing 500 pounds. The cost of gathering 1,500 
pounds of cotton at, say 60 cents per hundred, is $9. There- 
fore to gather ten million bales will cost, at present prices, 
$90,000,000. It is claimed by the cotton-harvester inven- 
tors that a machine can be made which will gather 4,000 
pounds of seed cotton per day, with the aid of one laborer 
and one mule, whereas the gathering of 150 to 200 pounds 
by hand is now a day's work for one man. 

The Growth of the Industry. 

The following table will give some idea of the increase, 
as well as some idea of the increased value of the crop 
since 1820. Values are all based on the rate of 10 cents 
per pound, and an average weight per bale of 500 pounds. 
The estimates are given in round numbers. 



Year. 


Production in Bales. 


Value at 10 cts per Pound. 


1820 
1840 


400,000 
1,600,000 


$ 20,000,000 
80,000,000 


1850 
i860 


2,250,000 
3,600,000 


112,500,000 
180,000,000 


1870 
1880 


3,000,000 
6,600,000 


150,000,000 
330,000,000 


1890 


8,000,000 


400,000,000 



As has already beeii said, cotton seed was formerly a 
waste proditct, except where used in the Southeast to a 



8 COTTON AS A FACTOR IN PROGRESS. 

limited extent as a fertilizer. Since the war the cotton 
seed oil business has been developed to such an extent 
that in an average season, about 1,500,000 tons of seed 
will be crushed for oil and other products. Out of these 
seed will come the following products, against which 
their values are shown: 

60,000.000 gallons cotton oil @$ 0.25 $15,000,000 

7oo,oco tons hulls @ 4.00 2,800,000 

500,000 tons meal @ 20.00 10,000,000 

50,000,000 pounds short lint @ .02 1,000.000 

Total $28,800,000 

This vest sum of money comes out of what was, in the 
days of slavery, almost entirely w^asted. 

But it is not alone in the utilization of cotton seed that 
the revived mechanical genius of the South is being 
shown, but in the manufacture of cotton into yarns and 
cloth as well. In a region of country reaching along the 
foothills of the mountains from Lynchburg in Virginia, to 
Atlanta, in Georgia, almost every town has one or more 
cotton factories, all built since the war. Many factories 
have been built on the water powers in the country, and 
towns have grown up ground them. At first only coarse 
goods were attempted; then finer and still finer products 
in succession. While as yet no very fine goods have been 
produced, enough has been done to prove that, as capital 
accumulates and the ovv^ners acquire an increased knowl- 
edge of the business and the operatives improve in skill, 
there is no more limit to the quality of the goods that 
may be made about Charlotte, North Carolina, than those 
that may be made about Lowell, Massachusetts, or Man- 
chester. England. 

And there is still another thought suggested by a study 
of general economic progress. The present industrial 
development in America, in England, and on the continent 
had its beginnings in four events, the absence of any one 
of which would have made present industrial conditions 
impossible. These were the invention of the power-spin- 
dle, the inventon of the power-loom, the invention of the 
cotton-gin, and the response to these by the southern 






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10 COTTON AS A FACTOR IN PROGRESS. 

portion of the United States in the production of the raw 
material for the utiUzation of these inventions. 

It is not alone of interest that the impetus given to the 
production of cotton by mechanical inventions has added 
to the productive capacity of Southern agriculture and 
increased the wealth of an important section of the Uni- 
ted States. Every family in the whole country has been 
benefitted by the cheapening of clothing and other articles 
made of cotton, by reason of the marvelous increase in the 
production of this Southern crop. The manufacturing 
and commercial interests of New England have been pro- 
moted to a remarkable extent by the same cause, to say 
nothing of the effect upon the cotton manufacturing 
interests in England and in other parts of the world. The 
increase in the consumption of cotton goods due to the 
wonderful cheapening of their cost, is another result of the 
increased cotton crop of the South, while the benefit to alt 
shipping interests due to the cotton carrying trade is still 
another result. That cotton, more than any other one 
item of freight, has been the basis of transatlantic com- 
merce, is well known. 

Leaving aside such general benefits, at home and 
abroad, accruing to the industry and to the commerce, and 
to the comfort of the human race from the increased cot- 
ton production of the South, we may again refer to the 
importance, to this section of the cotton growing indus- 
try. Cotton as a basis of wealth and of productive indus- 
try has made possible the growth of prosperous cities and 
towns where, at least before the development of the min- 
eral resources of the South, nothing of the kind could have 
existed. The cotton mdustry has contributed to the suc- 
cess of all transportation systems in our borders. Even 
the development of Southern coal and iron mines has been 
hastened by the need of iron by railroad companies for the 
transportation of the cotton and in the manufacture of 
cotton machinery, and the need of coal for purposes to 
which cotton has given rise. The cotton-growing indus- 
tr}', in short, has furnished what opportunity has existed 
in this large portion of the Union for the employment of 
engineering and mechanical skill, contributing thus to 
every branch of material progress. 






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CHAPTER II. 

IDalues in Cotton. 

A careful study of past events in connection with the 
development of cotton production, together with a study 
of the conditions surrounding the present state of the 
industry, should promote a knowledge of the subject that 
will be of infinite advantage in showing what is the best 
course for the American cotton producer to pursue in the 
future. 

It would be of great advantage for the present genera- 
tion to know in what way the most money can be made 
out of the cotton crop. Constantly increasing produc- 
tion, constantly lowering prices, increasing cost of labor, 
doubt as to the extent to which the negro will continue 
as a valuable laborer on the farm, the extent to which 
white labr^r is being attracted from the cultivation of 
cotton to occupation? in its manufacture, markets 
for increased production of goods, the questionable 
future of the negro; all these, and other changing con- 
ditions, makes it miportant to review carefully the 
past, study assiduously the present conditions, and 
upon the basis of tacts determine, with discretion, 
in what direction to move for the preservation of 
that practical monopoly in the production of cotton now 
enjoyed by the United States, for the betterment of the 
condition of those engaged in it and for the general 
interests of the people at large. 

Commencing in 1790 with a crop of 5.000 bales, the 
production of cotton has continually increased in the 
United States, reaching in 1898 more than 10.000,000 
bales. 

In the f.ame period the price has gone from about 25 
cents a pound to about 6 cents a pound. 



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VALUES IN COTTON. 13 

Cotton Monopoly. 

Before the civil war and the abolition of slavery, the 
monopol}' of the production of cotton by the United 
States for the larger markets was well nigh complete. 
This statement omits of course consideration of cotton 
raised in virions countries for hand spinning and weaving 
and other 'lome uses. 

Since the civil war m the United States, by which 
slavery was aboHshed, India and Egypt, under EngHsh 
direction, have developed a growing interest in the pro- 
duction and export of cotton. A considerable cotton 
manufacturing interest has also been developed in India, 
mostly with English capital and' under English manage- 
ment. 

*In i869-'70 the American crop was. . . .3,122,000 bales. 
In i869-'70 the India crop was 1,985,000 bales. 

In i88o-'8i the American crop was 6,605,000 bales. 

In i88o-'8i the India crop was 2,093,000 bales. 

In i890-'9i the American crop was 8,650,000 bales. 

In i890-'9i the India crop was 3,225,000 bales. 

Since 1890 the India crop has remained very nearly the 
same. The check to its continued growth, however, has 
only been accomplished by an increase of production to 
ten and eleven million bales in the United States, while 
at the same time the price has declined to five cents. 

It will be observed that the India crop of i890-'9i is 
about the same as the American crop was for i869-'70. It 
has required constant increase in production, and con- 
stant reduction in price, for the production and prices of 
the United States to check the encroachments of India 
upon cotton trade formerly controlled almost exclusively 
by this country. 

The conditions brought about by this competition are 
not satisfactory to the cotton farmer of the United States. 
Cotton at 5 cents a pound does not bring a satisfactory 

♦Figures reduced to round numbers are from "The Cotton Plant,"" 
published by the United States Government under direction of Chas. 
Dabn^y. 



14 VALUES IN COTTON. 

income. The contemplation of large crops and I'ow 
prices imder average past conditions give scant encour- 
agement to the cotton farmer for the future. 

Yet in view of the Increasing crops of India and Egypt 
it is evident that if the wiorld wants more cotton, the 
<lemand will be met and without any very great increase 
in price. 

The preceding figures in relation to the American and 
Indian crop show that, even with present quantities and 
at present prices prevailing in the United States, India 
could and would produce more cotton if the crop should 
be curtailed in this country. 

The exports of cotton from Egypt to Europe and the 
XTnited Kingdom are as follows (round numbers): 

In 1875, 347,000 bales. 

In 1880, 456,000 bales. 

In 1885, 500,000 bales. 

In i8qi, 538,000 bales. 

In 1895, 634,000 bales. 

From tliese figures it will be seen that the large pro- 
duction attained and the low prices reached in the United 
States do not stop the increase of production in Egypt. 
On the contrary, Egypt has made some headway in ship- 
ping;- cotton into the United States, the extent of which 
will be shown by the following figures: 

In 1885, 3,815 bales. 

In 1890, 23,790 bales. 

In 1895, 59,418 bales. 
In other countries, also, progress is being made. There- 
fore, it would appear that in time the less enterprising 
people of the W!orld learn American methods and then 
apply them where fairly favorable conditions and cheap 
labor can be found. 

The ante-bellum planter, with slave labor, did a won- 
derful work in creating methods and means for producing 
a raw material that went far to take the place of \Vool and 
linen, and at a price to put a good material for clothing 
within the reach of all humanity. 



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VALUES IN COTTON. 15 

The post-bellum farmer has done equally well if not 
better in forging ahead in the production of larger quanti- 
ties, as the wiorld's demand increased, and at prices suf- 
ficiently lower to fairly well preserve the monopoly. 

Many lactors have entered into the economies from 
year to year to keep the cost of cotton down below the 
market price. It formerly cost $5 a bale to gin and bale 
cotton. By improved methods it now costs less than $1 
in mosi parts of the cotton belt. 

The seed was formerly a waste product in some sec- 
tions, and of but scant value as a fertilizer in other sec- 
tions. But now cotton seed has become the raw material 
for a valuable and prosperous industry, cotton seed oil 
milling. 

Factories for the manufacture of commercial fertiHzers 
have been established, by which means very excellent 
fertilizers at very cheap prices are available wherever they 
are needed. 

States have founded agricultural Cblleges, Boards of 
Agriculture, Inspectors of Fertilizers, Agricultural Expe- 
riment Stations, ana have in many other ways contributed 
to the acquisition and distribution of knowledge of better 
methods and closer economies in producing cotton. 

Decreasing Profits in Producing Cotton. 

With the advantage of all these, the condition of the 
cotton farmer is not a satisfactory one. The following 
figures, showing approximate crops and their values, all 
in round numbers, will illustrate the disadvantages that 
changing conditions impose upon the farmer: 

Crop of 1871 — 4.250,000 bales @ 17c $361,250,000. 

Crop of 1880 — 5,750,000 bales @ 12c 345,000,000. 

Crop of 1886 — 6,500,000 bales @ 9^c 308,750,000. 

Crop of 1895 — 9,500,000 bales @ 6^c 308,750,000. 

From the above, it will be seen that the crop of 1895, 
while abtout double that of 1871, only yields about the 
same money. It must not be forgotten, however, that 
the cost of production has been much decreased in the 
same time, and that the developing cotton seed oil busi- 



16 VALUES IN COTTON. 

ness has given a value to by products of the crop, and 
that the value of money is greater now than it was in 1871 
because of the lowering of the prices of all other products 
(or the appreciation of money whichever way it may be 
called.) The appearance of furnishing twice the cotton 
therefore for the same value is not correct. 

Better knowledge and further economies may of course 
be introduced. Education may be improved and exten- 
ded. Fertilizers will be more abundantly made, and sold 
cheaper. Experiment stations will develop and dissemi- 
nate a knowledge of better methods. Better and cheaper 
methods of preparing cotton for the markets will be 
invented and introduced. 

But with all these, the problem is still a serious one. 
Assume that 5 cents per pound is now the cost of pro- 
ducing cotton. To reduce the cost of production to four 
cents would be a saving of 20 per cent. But assuming 
that our schools, experiment stations, fertiHzer inspec- 
tors and all other co-operating influences be kept at 
work, a saving of i cent per pound, or 20 per cent, of the 
cost, is going to be hard to reach. 

It would seem that the States and the people have been 
diligent and studious in finding out and applying well 
developed knowledge and new methods to keep down the 
cost of cotton production. Statistics from other coun- 
tries show that without this constant improvement and 
lowering of prices here, those other countries would have 
taken a large proportion of the cotton trade which we 
yet control. 

It is evident that all the talk about curtailment of pro- 
duction and increase of price can never lead to any good 
results. If such a policy could possibly be adopted, the 
beneficial effects could only be felt during the one or two 
years in which the advanced price would certainly stimu- 
late, to the normal requirements of the world, the pro- 
duction in other countries, at very little if any bettei 
than present prices. 



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VALUES IN COTTON. 17 

How to Increase Profits in Cotton Growing. 

The future prosperity of the American cotton producer 
lies in the development of the manufacture of the staple 
at home. By this means the farmer would not only get 
a better price for his cotton, but the markets created for 
other farm products which are not now salable, would go 
far to make a surplus and profitable cash income without 
curtailing the production of cotton. It is well known 
that the average cotton farmer has ample time to spare. 
With a manufacturing population to take his perishable 
food crops he could raise as much cotton as usual and sell 
chickens, eggs, fruits, vegetables, meat, wood, and other 
things required by factory operatives to an extent to 
bring as much cash income as the value of his cotton 
crop, thus doubling his gross income from the same farm. 
Some more work would be required, but it would be 
pleasant work. The new income would be one that 
would extend over the entire year, and would yield most 
cash in spring and summer when the cotton farmer is 
needing it the most. 

The advantages of home m.anufacture may be illus- 
trated by figures as follows: 

Take an ordinary county producing 10,000 bales of 
cotton; then 

lo.roo bales sold in bales @ 6c^=$300,ooo. 
10,000 bales sold as cloth @ i8c^ 900.000. 

This would make a profit of $600,000 to the county. 

Assume that this cloth was shipped to China instead 
of shipping the raw cotton to England and it becomes 
evident that the English cotton buyer sends here $300,- 
000 while the Chinaman would send $900,000. Tliis 
$600,000.00 additional would be distributed about as 
follows in the county. 

To stockholders of the Factories, say $100,000 

To Operatives 300.000 

To Fuel and Supplies 100.000 

To Miscellaneous loo.oco 

About half the money paid to operatives would go to 



18 VALUES IN COTTON. 

farmers for foodstuffs. About one third to merchants. 
Some would be saved. 

The above basis of i8c a pound for cloth is fixed upon 
as a fair average of the selling price for the kinds of cloth 
now being made in North Carolina. 

Finer cloths v/ould show a correspondingly better 
advantage. 

In order to show hov; this operates, a bolt of cotton 
cloth — summer dress goods — was taken from the stock 
of a country merchant and weighed up. According to 
the price charged per yard — and it was considered cheap 
— that cotton cloth sold for 50 cents per pound. Another 
similar bolt sold at the rate of 64 cents per pound. This 
was in a North Carohna town, the county seat of a county 
making 10,000 bales of cotton. 

It is possible that the cotton from which this very cloth 
was made, went away from the county at 5c per pound 
and came back at 50 or 64 cents per pound. 

In other words, if a farmer's wife or daughter bought 
this cloth for a dress, it might easily happen that the 
farmers crop of ten bales of cotton might have been sold 
for 300 dollars, and a portion of it bought back by his 
wife at the rate of $3,000.00 or ten times its original value. 

And it is a question whether the labor of turning cot- 
ton into cloth was as much as that of producing the cot- 
ton. The matter of making the cloth is one of creating 
the facihties and of knowing how to do it. As a proof 
that the advantage lies with the manufacturer, it is only 
necessary to visit a town in the cotton belt having good 
agricultural surroundings but no manufactures, and then 
visit a cotton manufacturing centre, in or out of the cot- 
ton belt. 

Prosperity of Manufacturing Towns. 

In the former the conspicuous elements are unpainted 
houses, idle people on the streets, a want of public 
impr*ovement, besides many other similar deficiencies. In 
the latter, the streets are paved, the people are alert, 
houses are in good repair and painted; and all evidences 



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VALUES IN COTTON. 19 

go to show the vakie to a people of making cotton woith 
more than 6c. a pound before sending it away from home. 

\\ hile the figures show that the manufacture of cotton 
enriches a country, there is never any certainty that any 
one person or any one mill will get rich or even make 
money. With the increased income to a country on man- 
ufactured cotton over and above raw cotton, everybody 
ought to live better, and everybody certainly has the 
chance to make a better living, and even accumulate 
property if they work and are thrifty and economical. 

The opportunity to accumulate property and get rich 
is within the reach of all wherever successful manufactur- 
ing is done; but it is not the nature of all people to save 
money, even when they make it. 

Property in any community always benefits the whole 
people as well as those who accumulate property. 

The roads are better, public buildings are better, streets 
and pavements are better, schools, libraries, churches, art 
galleries and all other things that go to make up human 
life are better. In peace or in war it is the prosperous 
country that is most successful and whose people are most 
independent. The best prosperity in peace and the great- 
est strength in war belong to the manufacturing people 
of ihe world. 

As an evidence of the change that the introduction of 
manufactures makes in a town or city, notice the contrast 
between the public buildings of Charlotte, N. C, in 1888 
and in 1898. 

The possibilities for multiplying wealth and keeping 
money in circulation at home are startHng from their very 
magnitude. 

Figuring the American crop at ten miUion bales, we 
v.'ould have: 

10,000.000 bales sold as cotton @ 6c $300,000,000.00. 
10,000,000 bales sold as cloth @ i8c 900,000,000.00. 

This would bring to the people of the cotton region 
in America three times the money now received for the 
cotton crop. It is not to be assumed that the markets 
would take the entire crop in the shape of plain, white 



20 VALUES IN COTTON. 

and colored goods. But, with our increasing trade with 
other countries requiring plain goods, there would seem 
to be ample room to extend operations in that direction 
for some time to come. The following are some figures 
relating to Chinese trade. 

Imports Into China $170,991,384 value. 

Imports from U. S. into China 9,659,440 value. 

Imports Cotton Goods into China. . . 64,028,692 value. 
Imports Cotton Goods U. S. into China 7,438,203 value. 

There are other countries more or less similarly situa- 
ted. 

In North Carolina the quantity of cotton manufactured 
is something over 300,000 bales. The report of the com- 
missioner of labor for the State shows that this requires 
something over 30^000 operatives in her factories. Thus 
in making plain goods, white and colored, a factory w"ll 
consume about ten bales of cotton for each person 
employed. 

At this rate an entire crop of American cotton aggre- 
gating 10,000,000 bales could be manufactured into plain 
goods by 1,000,000 operatives. The population of the 
American cotton producing area is probably about 20,- 
000,000 people. Those who know the existing condi- 
tions will probably not dissent from the opinion that it 
would be easy to put 1,000,000 people to work manufac- 
turing cotton, and never miss them, from present 
employments. 

Estimating 12,000,000 out of the entire population as 
being white people, even from amongst these, a million 
could be more than easily spared. 

The creation of the means for profitable employment 
in any community elevates the community and the people 
also. Districts that are purely agricultural furnish scant 
encouragement to those who are not situated so they can 
farm. There is many an instance where a person has 
lived a humdrum life in an agricultural com.munity, and 
whose energies were not held in high esteem, but who. 
became of great value in the development of a manufac- 
turing interest. 




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VALUES IN COTTON. 21 

The above estimate of the possibiHties with present 
conditions is based to some extent on actual results that 
have been attained in North Carolina. By the report of 
the commissioner of labor, the crop of the State is some- 
thing over 500,000 bales; 500,000 bales @ 6c. would 
yield $15,000,000; 300,000 bales now manufactured into 
cloth 2nd yarn actually do yield an average of i8c. or 
$27,000,000. The value of the remaining 200.000 bales 
@ 6c. w^uld be $6,000,000. Thus the crop of North 
Carolina now actuallv yields in money to her people 
about $33,000,000 as against $15,000,000 if the whole 
were still sold in a raw state. 

The factory that triples the price of cotton should al^^o 
triple the value of the neighboring land upon which the 
cotton is produced. The factory in efTect, pays a bounty 
to the farmer. This bounty is paid as follows: 

1. A factory pays an average of | cent more for 
cotton than is paid for shipment or export. While this 
is not a voluntary contribution, (the factory pays it to 
keep the local cotton from going away, thereby avoiding 
paying freight on other cotton.) It is about one dollar per 
bale bounty to the farmer nevertheless. 

2. A market is created for wood, chickens, eggs, but- 
ter, milk, fruit, vegetables, pork, mutton, and even- other 
food stuff for humanity that a farm in the cotton region is 
capable of raising. 

3. There would be from time to time profitable occu- 
pation for some members of farmers families in teaching 
school, working in the factory, clerking, etc., etc. 
Doctors and store keepers get patronage and trade, and 
these in turn must have food stuffs. 

It is easy to perceive that with ample markets and 
other advantages, a thrifty farmer could double his 
income by the sale of stuffs for which, without manufac- 
tures, he has no markets, and much of which he now 
produces and loses. 

Some apprehension has been expressed that the facto- 
ries would injure the farming interests. That the better 
and more regular wages in factories would attract people 



22 VALUES IN COTTON. 

from the farms and thus cause their abandonment. As a 
matter of fact, the tendency is the other way. As facto- 
ries are estabHshed and increased, farming becomes more 
and more attractive. This is not a matter of opinion or 
a theory, but the increased value of land and the better 
condition of the farming interests are conspicuous where- 
ever factories have been established. 

If, however, it should become necessary to still 
further stimulate the farming interests beyond what the 
factories naturally giv'-% this could be profitably accom- 
plished by paying a direct bounty on every pound of cot- 
ton produced. The need for this is a long time off; for 
reasons have already been given to show that the estab- 
lishment of factories is calculated to double the income of 
neighboring farmers. This is the same result as if cotton 
brought in the market 12 cents instead of 6c. or loc. m 
place of 5c. 

In the previous discussion, the manufacture of plain 
white goods and ordinary checks and plaids have been 
considered. These bring an average price about three 
times the value of cotton. With increasing knowledge, 
skill and experience, goods may be made which are worth 
five times and ten times the value of raw cotton. In 
order that the greater advantages of these better prices 
may in future be obtained, it is important to give careful 
attention to the subject of Textile Education. Assum.- 
ing that the crop of 10,000,000 bales could be made worth 
an average of 6oc. a pound by manufacture into finer 
goods at home, we would have: 
10.000,000 bales at 6c. yielding now $300,000,000. 
10,000,000 bales at 6oc. yielding then $3,000,000,000. 

Organdies in any dry goods store sell every day at the 
rate of 60 cents per pound. Finely made and well finished 
cotton goods of many kinds sell as high as $2.00 per 
pound, and even higher. 

We all know that the cheapest and best raw material 
in the world for plain clothing (cotton) is available here 
in great quantity. That the market for the product is 
the whole world. That there is a large idle population 




Fig 13. Old Court House, Charlotte, N. C, 1888. 









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VALUES IN COTTON. 23 

capable of making good operatives and needing employ- 
ment. It has already been proven that manufacturing 
can be successfully carried on in the cotton growing area 
of the United States. We need fostering laws, the comi- 
dence of home capital, education and training in textile 
work. 

Overproduction. 

The question of overproduction would seem to be 
dependent on the development of foreign trade to take 
the goods. The cotton crop is now about ten million 
bales. About one quarter of this crop is manufactured 
in the United States. The remaining seven and a half 
million bales are sent abroad to be manufactured. If our 
export trade facilities shoud be made equal to those of 
England and Germany, then the subject would be reduced 
to one of our ability to compete. In plain white goods we 
are now competing in the Chinese, and some other mar- 
kets, against the manufacturers of the world. 

England and Germany and other countries are willing 
enough to send subsidized ships here to take away our 
raw cotton at 5 cents per pound. They would soon tire 
of takini]^ away our manufactured goods at 15 cents per 
pound and upward. We must have our own national 
shipping facilities and our banking houses in the foreign 
countries. 

With these advantages, there is no good reason why 
the American manufacturer cannot make cotton goods as 
economically as any other country, and extend his trade 
over the entire world. If this be done then the construc- 
tion of new factories may continue until the entire cotton 
crop is manufactured at home. Without a growing 
export trade, there are now mills enough to supply the 
entire home markets. The American export trade is now 
growing rapidly, and seems fair to continue to do so. As 
long as. this continues there is no immediate danger of 
overproduction. 

If the cotton is manufactured at home, it is not only 
important, but essential, to have shipping facilities to dis- 
tribute the manufactured products over the world. 



24 VALUES IN COTTON. 

Our shipping interest is in exceedingly bad condition. 
In truth, excepting only in coastwise or domestic trade, 
we have very little shipping interest. While our future 
prosperity is dependent upon manufactures, the manufac- 
turing interest, in turn, is dependent on the development 
and maint.iinance of a merchant marine which will distri- 
bute our goods over the world. Every cotton manufac- 
turer and cotton farmer should aid in every way possible 
the development of our shipping interests. 

We have more railroads than all the rest of the world 
combined. With these our domestic transportation facil- 
ities are the finest m the world, and our domestic freight 
rates are exceedingly low. Yet the ocean traffic under the 
American flag is insignificant. 

The English travel in their own ships, as we travel in 
our own railway trains, but the Americans have neglected 
to provide facilities for foreign trade. 

Much has been said about competition between the 
North and South in cotton manufacture. This talk 
seems to be without good reason. The cotton manufac- 
turers of the United States, North and South alike, are 
together in competition with those of Germany and Eng- 
land. Conditions that will make prosperity in the South 
will also make prosperity in the North. It is important 
that the people of both sections work together to creaie 
proper shipping facilities for the export of our products, 
and that we co-operate to bring about national laws to 
develop and foster cur export trade in manufactured 
cotton goods. 




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CHAPTER III. 



©rgantsatton of Company. 



The first move in the organization of a company is the 
subscription list. This is generally very simple, as fol- 
lows : 

"We. the undersigned, hereby subscribe the sums set 
■opposite our names to the capital stock of a company to 
be formed for the purpose of building a cotton mill at or 
near Edgefield. S. C Shares $ioo each. 



Name. 


No. Shares. 


Amount. 

































Another form, with conditions, would be as follows: 

"We, the undersigned, hereby subscribe the sums set 
opposite our names to the capital stock of a company to 
be formed for the purpose of building a cotton mill at or 
near Canton, Aliss Shares $ioo each. 

When S65,ooo is subscribed, the company maybeorgan- 
ized and proceed to build a mill. 

Additional subscriptions may be obtained up to $200.- 
000.00. 



Name. 


No. Shares. 


Amount. 

































Next after the subscription fist comes the charter. Tlie 
laws in different States vary so greatly, as to method of 
■obtaining charters, that no suggestion can be made here 
as to charter except that a lawyer should be employed to 
■obtain one. The charter ought to be as liberal as possi- 



26 ORGANIZATION OF COMPANY. 

ble a.-} to ihe limits of capital. It should permit starting 
business on a low minimum capital subscribed, and should 
permit continued subscriptions to a fairly high figure. If 
it is contemplated to raise $100,000.00 more or less, then 
the charter should make $75,000 the capital necessary 
before organizing and $250,000 the limit on the high side. 
Of course even this could be increased at a future time by 
amending the charter. 

After the charter, comes a meeting of the stockholders 
to elect directors. At this meeting the By Laws should 
be ready and should be adopted. 

The directors elect the officers. They should be 
authorized to call in the capital stock as needed. It might 
be better to fix the calls as for example 10 per cent, per 
month until the stock was paid to par value. 

The By Laws for a cotton mill company are usually 
about as follows: 

By-Laws. 

Section i. Members of this corporation shall be per- 
sons of the age of twenty-one (21) years and upwards. 
Minors may hold stock by trustees, but not otherwise. 

Section 2. Each stockholder will be held bound to 
pay his assessments and faithfully observe and fulfill all 
the requirements of the Charter and By-Laws. 

Section 3. Annual meetings shall be held second 
Wednesday of April of each year for the purpose of elec- 
ting Directors and receiving the reports of officers, and 
for the transaction of any other business that may prop- 
erly come up for consideration. 

Section 4. At the annual meeting the President, Vice- 
President and Treasurer shall make their annual report. 

Section 5. At all regular and special meetings of the 
stockholders a majority of the stock shall constitute a 
quorum for the transaction of business. 

Section 6. The President and Directors or a majority 
of the Board may call a special meeting of the stockhold- 
ers at any time on mailing written notice or publishing 
ten (10) days' notice thereof in a newspaper published in 
the city of Charlotte. 




F:§-. 17. Old City Hall, Charlotte, N. C, i 




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Fig-. i8. New City Hall. Charlotte, N. C, 1898. 



ORGANIZATION OF COMPANY. 27 

Section 7. None but stockholders shall be ehgible to 
the office of Director, and whenever any vacancy shall 
occur in the Board of Directors it shall be the duty of the 
Bo;.rd to fill such vacancy until the next meeting of the 
stockholders. 

Section 8. A majority c_ the Board of Directors shall 
constitute a quorum. In the absence of the President, 
the Vice President will perform the duties of the Presi- 
dent. 

Section 9. The Board of Directors shall meet from 
time to time and on such day as they may deem best for 
the interest of the Corporation; they shall constitute the 
Council of Administration, and it shall be their duty to 
manage the business affairs of the Corporation, to exam- 
ine regularly the books and accounts of the Treasurer, 
and they may appoint from their own members, such 
committees as may be necessar}^ except as provided in 
section 17 of the By-Laws. 

Section 10. The President shall have charge of all the 
property and affairs of the Corporation. He shall preside 
at the meetings of the Board of Directors, appoint com- 
mittees and make all contracts for the Company, and the 
duties of all the officers shall be done subject to his 
direction and approval. He shall take into his keeping 
the bonds of the other officers of the Company, cause the 
Charter and By-Laws to be enforced, and cause the books 
and vouchers of the Company to be audited at regular 
intervals not exceeding six months. He shall be elected 
by the Board of Directors for one year, or until his succes- 
sor is elected. 

Section 11. The 2nd Vice President and Secretary 
shall keep the stock book and seal of the Company. He 
shall with the advice and approval of the President, pur- 
chase the cotton, supplies, etc., sell the goodsand conduct 
the general business of the Corporation, all of which shall 
be subject to the approval of the Board of Directors. He 
shall be elected by the Board of Directors for one year or 
until his successor is elected. He shall keep a record of 
the Company's meetings and of the meetings of the 



28 ORGANIZATION OF COMPANY. 

Board of Directors. His compensation shall be fixed by 
the Board of Directors. 

Section 12. The duties of the Treasurer shall be as fol- 
lows: Keep an accurate set of books of all transactions of 
the Company, and make and submit to the other oflicers 
and the Board of Directors, a balance sheet each month, 
giving such analysis of the books as shall enable the of- 
ficers to fully understand the profits, losses or other facts 
of importance relating to the conduct of the business. 

He shall furnish, as often as required, vouchers for a 
proper audit of the Company's books and accounts. 

He shall sign all checks, drafts and notes, provided that 
notes shall also always be signed by the President or sec- 
ond Mce President. The President or second \^ice Pres- 
ident may also countersign checks or drafts. In the ab- 
sence of the Treasurer, the President or second Vict Pres- 
ident shall sign checks, drafts and notes. 

The Board of Directors shall fix his compensation. 

He shall give bond in an approved Security Company 
for an amount to be fixed by the Board of Directors, but 
for no less than Si 0,000. 

The fee for bond to be paid by the Company. 

Section 13. It shall be the duty of the Board of Di- 
rectors at least five days previous to ever\- annual election 
for Directors, to appoint from the stockholders two com- 
petent persons to investigate the affairs of said corpora- 
tion, and to make report thereof, which report shall be 
recorded in a book kept for that purpose, which shall al- 
ways be open to the inspection of any Stockholder. 

Section 14. Any officer of the Corporation may be re- 
moved or suspended for neglect of duty, breach of trust 
or other sufficient causes, by the Board of Directors. 

Section 15. All assignments and transfers of stock 
must be made upon the books of the Corporation at least 
ten (10) days before each annual meeting, in order to 
entitle the assignee to all the rights and privileges of the 
original Shareholder at each annual meeting. 

Section 16. Any person desiring to subscribe for 
stock at any time after the organization of the Cor- 



ORGANIZATION OF COMPANY. 29 

poration, may become a shareholder on such terms and 
conditions as the Board of Directors may prescribe. 

Section 17. The President, except as otherwise pro- 
vided for, shall appoint such officers and employees of the 
Corporation as may be required from time to time for the 
prosecution of its business, and fix the amount of com- 
pensation to be paid them. 

Section i8. All election of ofScers shall be held by 
ballot. 

Section 19. Certificates of stock shall be issued when 
Stockholders shall have paid their assessments in full. 
All certificates of stock shall be signed by the President 
and Secretary of the Company, with the seal of the Cor- 
poration affixed thereto. 

Order of Business — Stockholders' Meeting. 

1. Appointment of committee of two to ascertain the 
amount of stock represented in person and by proxy. 

2. Reading of minutes of last annual and any inter- 
vening meetings. 

3. Report of President with accompanying reports of 
officers. 

4. New business, motions, resolutions, etc. 

5. Election of Directors. 

6. Adjournment. 

Number of Directors. 

In introducing manufactures into new territory, the 
companies are necessarily, in most cases, made up of many 
small subscribers. This generally changes as manufactu- 
ring grows. After manufactures are well established a 
new factory is generally organized by a small coterie of 
business friends. Sometimes three to five men will 
arrange to build a mill and then let in a few personal 
friends for reasonable amounts, if the friends desire to 
get in. 

Even when the number of stockholders is large, it is 
not considered desirable to have large directories. Five 
directors is generally considered enough. Seven is not 



30 ORGANIZATION OF COMPANY. 

objectionable or uncommon. Harmony in the board is 
the important element. A mill might of course have 
15 directors and have an efficient and harmonious board. 
The chances are, however, that with 15 members on a 
board they would either neglect their duties or wrangle 
and finally quarrel. This would mean the breaking up 
of the mill. Nothing will more certainly break a cotton 
mill company than a quarrel in the board of directors or 
amongst the stockholders. The officers should be of a 
kind that could occupy their positions one year after 
another without interruption. 

One of the objections to a large list of stockholders is 
that there is liable to be some obstructive man who is 
purposely making trouble for the executive officers. It 
may be a man who wanrs to buy cotton for the mill, or do 
the law business for the mill or be treasurer, or it may be 
one W'ho simply delights in making trouble. 

Sometimes when a company has many stockholders a 
small coterie of these get enough stock to control the 
company and then these determine in a conference what 
is to be done and what not done. Then when the stock- 
holders meet, the dissentious element can do little harm. 

In most companies the minority stock tends to scatter. 
It is bought by individuals for investment, and the known 
strength of the controlling majority is a point in favor of 
the stock rather than against it. 

Salaries. 

The personnel of the organization varies so much that 
there is no standard method of organizing or of fixing 
salaries. It is entirely unlike the political organization 
of a State, having a governorship with a fixed salary and 
well defined duties, and other official positions having 
fixed salaries and well defined duties. 

When manufactures have become well established, a new 
mill is sometimes organized by a number of men who 
perceive that some one man is a promising manufacturer. 
So much stress is laid on the qualities of the man that 
investors will raise money to be put in the hands of the 
good manufacturer. In such case this man would be apt 



ORGANIZATION OF COMPANY. 31 

to be made President and Treasurer and be allowed to 
select his own bookkeeper who would be made secretary. 

If this is a young man he might have been receiving in 
his old place $1,200, $1,500, $1,800, $2,500 or even $3,000 
per year salary, according to size of mill. In the new 
place, he might get $1,500, $2,000, $2,500, $3,000 at the 
start of the new enterprise, with the understanding that 
he is to receive better pay when the new property is made 
a success. 

For a mill of 10,000 spindles and 320 looms, the salary 
list might be as follows. 

President and Treasurer $2,500.00 

Secretary 1,200.00 

Superintendent 1,500.0c 

or it might be with an entirely different set of people as 
follows : 

President $ 600.00 

Secretar}' and Treasurer 2,000.00 

Superintendent 1,800.00 

In the former case the President and Treasurer would 
be the man to give his entire time and attention to the 
business. 

In the latter case, the Secretary and Treasurer would 
be the active man of affairs, the President probably mak- 
ing the financial arrangements and exercising very gen- 
eral supervision. 

In a mill having 50 to 100 thousand spindles the Pres- 
ident and Treasurer, when the active man would receive 
a salary of $8,000 to $12,000. The Secretary would get 
about $2,000 and the Superintendent $4,000. 

In a mill of 75,000 spindles, the salary list might run as 
follows: 

President and Treasurer $10,000 

Secretary 2.500 

Superintendent 5, 000 

Bookkeeper 1,500 

Shipping Clerk 1,000 

Cotton Buyer 2.000 

Total $22,000 



32 ORGANIZATION OF COMPANY. 

It might be said that the salary list varies from 2 to 5 
per cent, of the capital stock, but this is no rule. Some 
times it is more and sometimes less. The desire of the 
stockholders is always to get a man who can make good 
profits and the man who can do this can command a 
salary that bears no relation to anything else except the 
profits he makes. 

Experience shows that the man who knows his business 
well and can handle his labor well is cheap at any price. 

It has been fairly well demonstrated that small mills 
pay about as well as large ones where proper attention is 
given to keeping down fixed changes. A small and com- 
paratively poor town should not expect to be able to 
build a large factory. But it may build a small one, and 
by hard work and careful management develop it into a 
large one. 

The history of all people and of every nation is that 
there is always room for people of moderate means to 
start business in a small way and make it successful. 
Whenever this becom.es otherwise in any country, then 
civilization has reached its maximum and that country 
will not long survive. 

Cotton mills have been started with 25 to 30 thousand 
dollars and made successful, even by people not very 
familiar with the business. 

In Philadelphia many a good weaver has saved money 
enough to buy one or two dozen looms and started busi- 
ness in some rented loft, renting power also and buying 
yarn. Such a business has been started with as little 
capital as $2,000 or $3,000 and ultimately developed into 
a large manufacturing establishment. 

There would, therefore, seem to be neither a high nor 
low limit of capital necessary for the construction of a 
cotton mill for those who are experts in the process. 

For those not familiar with the processes, a mill of 
sufficient size must be built to warrant the employment 
of a skilled Supt. The business can always be done by 
home people. It would seem as if about $65,000 to $75,- 
000 is the low limit of capital that ought to be subscribed 



ORGANIZATION OF COMPANY. 33 

for a cotton mill in a new section. With this sum, a mill 
of 2,500 to 3,000 spindles and 80 to 100 looms can be 
erected, including operative's houses, but no surplus or 
working' capital. 

It is best of course for a cotton mill to have 10 to 20 
per cent, of its capital stock as working capital. 

The older mills in the South generally arrange this out 
of their surplus. 

As a matter of fact, however, most of the new mills 
start without working capital. Money for cotton is 
borrowed from home banks, and the product is either 
sold or consigned to a commission house and drawn 
against for 75 to 90 per cent, of its value. 

The most ordinary plan is to borrow money at home for 
cotton, and then sell the product as fast as made. 

In some cases the banks will lend money to a mill on 
its own note, holdin^^ a claim on cotton purchased, as 
additional security. Sometimes the bank also wants the 
indorsement of the President or Treasurer, or both. In 
a few cases the entiic Board of Directors indorses the 
paper to raise working capital for the mill. This latter is 
rarely done except when the cost of the mill exceeds the 
capital stock, thereby leaving the mill in debt on its con- 
struction account as well as for the working capital. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Xocation ant) SurrounMngs. 

The conditions to be examined into preliminary to the 
establishment of a cotton manufacturing plant may be 
enumerated as follows: location, water supply, freight 
rates, raw material. 

Location. 

The location should be healthful above all other con- 
siderations. Factory operatives cannot do good work 
except in good health. 

The character of the ground should at a reasonable 
depth furnish good foundations. 

The factory and the houses should be above overflow 
level from any adjacent stream or otherwise. 

There should be ample room for operatives houses and 
if possible space should be allowed with each house for a 
garden. Half acre for each house is desirable if it can be 
obtained at reasonable price. For a ten thousand spindle 
mill, 5 to 10 acres for the mill lot and 40 acres for opera- 
tives houses would be desirable. 

In organizing a new company, the people who subscribe 
to the stock, often do so not only as an investment but as 
a help to the town in which they live. In pursuance of 
this thought, they frequently argue for locating the mdl 
within the incorporate limits of the town or city. 

On the whole, it may be considered good advice for a 
new mill not to locate within the limits of a city or town. 
If the matter of building up a town is to be considered, a 
mill located just outside the incorporate limits will escape 
city taxation and other disadvantages, and at the same 
time contribute to the city's trade. Small country stores 
are likely to spring up in the vicinity of the mill and 
absorb some of the trade; but a similar condition would 
also divide the trade if the mill was in the city. 






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LOCATION AND SURROUNDINGS. 35 

If building up the trade of a city has no influence in the 
locating, the mill may be located to advantage in the 
remote country, where the full benefit of mercantile 
features may be enjoyed by the mill company. 

There are advantages and disadvantages in locating in 
a city. There are alsD advantages and disadvantages in 
locating in the country. 

The employees generally prefer to live in a city. There- 
fore a city mill gets some preference as to employees. En 
most cases city taxes must be paid, which is a disadvan- 
tage. The proximity of lawyers also promotes law suit-j 
both in the business of the mill and for operatives that 
may be hurt in the mill in any accidental way. The mer- 
cantile business necessarily goes to the people of the city 
or town, whereas a mill in the country can operate its ov/n 
store and thereby get back in mercantile profit much of 
the money paid for wages. 

An important advantage of locating in the country is 
that employees go to bed at a reasonable hour and are 
therefore in better condition to work in day time. 

Water Supply. 

It is very important that a good water supply be obtain- 
able, both for drinking purposes and for power and other 
general purposes. 

For power purposes, where the power is steam, the 
water needed for a non-condensing engine should be at 
least 5 gallons per horse power per hour. For fire protec- 
tion, scouring, &c., &c., another five gallons per horse 
power would not be amiss. 

It is better still to have practically unlimited water so 
that a condensing engine can be operated without the 
need of the cooling tower. 

Where the surface water supply becomes inadequate, 
as happens sometimes in extension of the mill, or other- 
wise, it frequently happens that an underground supply 
can be found by a suitable sub-surface survey. This 
would consist of a series of drillings and careful observa- 
tions of the geological conditions by an expert. 



36 LOCATION AND SURROUNDINGS. 

Freight Rates. 

There is no point in the cotton growing area where 
freight rates would prohibit the manufacture of cotton. 
There are points where coal would be somewhat expen- 
sive, but wherever the rates on goods would be high, 
the rates on cotton would also be high, and the local 
price of cotton would be correspondingly low. The 
freight on machinery and supplies would of course count 
for something, but this is mostly on the first cost of 
the plant. If possible, it is better to locate where two 
different systems of railway can be reached. This is not 
because rates would be made less, but for the advantages 
of small accomodations from the local agents who will 
if necessary, compete to some extent within the limits of 
the agreements of the companies or general officers. 

Raw Material — Cotton. 

The question of raw material is one of the first matters 
to claim attention in locating most manufacturing plants. 
But in the cotton producing region, it is of less importance 
than any other one element. Cotton may always be pro- 
cured under as favorable conditions and prices as compe- 
ting factories. If there should appear to be a difference 
one way or another, it is usually offset by other advanta- 
ges or disadvantages. 

General Conditions. 

In some States new factories are relieved by law from 
taxation for a period of years, generally ten years. 

There is an impression that the mills operated by water 
power have been more profitable than those operated by 
steam. The water power mill is almost always in the 
country and generally operates its own store. The mer- 
cantile business gives some advantage but a steam mill 
under the same conditions would get the same advantage, 
and on an average would do as well. 

Steam is, in fact, the power of the world. Omitting 
home n-.ade or hand made products perhaps 95 per cent, 
of the goods of the world are made with steam power. 



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LOCATION AND SURROUNDINGS. 37 

Therefore the prices of products are based upon the cost 
of steam power. 

The relative quantity of steam and water power used 
will probably be changed by the use of electricity for 
transmitting water power from points where the water 
power is located to points where it can be used. Man} 
water powers heretofore unavailable are on this account 
becoming valuable. 

Many mill companies provide school houses and con- 
tribute something to the support of schools. It can 
generally be arranged to get a fair proportion of the public 
school fund upon condition that the school trustees be 
allowed to have something to do with selecting the 
teacher and conducting the school. A few factory com-- 
panies furnish houses and support schools entirely at the 
cost of the factory companies. 

Many factories furnish a house called a Lyceum or 
Auditorium. This is held for the free use of the opera- 
tives for church and Sunday school purposes and for 
holding proper entertainments or conducting innocent 
amusement. 

A few mills provide and maintain libraries for the free 
use of the operatives. 

Sometimes one building serves as a school, auditorium, 
library and reading room. 

The most successful and intelligent cotton mill man- 
agements are giving more and more attention to the 
subject of improving the condition of factor}^ operatives 
and promoting the cause of education among them. 
Motives of philanthropy are partly responsible for this. 
but the business interest of the mill is another important 
incentive. Moral influences and education make better 
work people. 

The ofincers of well managed corporations give full 
attention to cleanliness and good order inside a mill and 
also to the general appearance of grounds and surround- 
ings. Every good superintendent has been trained to 
know that a dirty mill cannot turn out first-class product. 

It is less generally recognized, but equally true, that 



38 LOCATION AND SURROUNDINGS. 

ill kept grounds and svirroundings have their ill effect 
upon the habits of the operatives. 

Perhaps the most important element in good manage- 
ment is cleanliness and neatness inside the mill and well 
kept grounds and surroundings outside. It should be 
the pride of every president and superintendent to make 
the company's property conspicuous by its cleanliness, 
neatness and well kept appearance. 

Some cotton mills in the South are operated night and 
day. This is done with two different sets of operatives, 
each working about 1 1 hours per turn. Sometimes the 
night turn works only lo^ hours. Sometimes only the 
spinning is operated at night. In this case there would 
either be looms enough to consume the night and day 
product of the spindles, or else the product of the night 
turn would not be woven, but be sold as yarn. 

New England mills seldom run at night. 

Many people in the South are opposed to night work 
for women and children. 

The large mills of the South do no night work. 

In course of time probably none of the mills will be 
operated at night. The increased demand for labor in 
the new factories will give everybody a chance to get day 
light employment, which of course is preferred. 

The criticisms made about night work, however, are 
largely sentimental, and the trouble about it is more in 
the minds of the critics than with the operatives them- 
selves. 

Nevertheless, when factories are only operated in day 
time, it will be better for the factory and operatives. No 
legislation is needed to bring about this change, as it will 
come in the ordinary course of factory evolution. 



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CHAPTER V. 

lRat0ing CapttaL 

In most places where a new mill is proposed, an idea is 
prevalent that if half the money is raised at home, then 
somebody from somewhere will furnish the other half. 

Several years ago tlie builders of cotton mill machinery 
took stock in new mills as part payment for the machm- 
try. This brought on numerous complications and trou- 
ble, and the practice has now been entirely abandoned. 

Commission houses in the North who sell cotton mill 
products, have often taken stock in new Southern mills. 
They do this of course mostly for the sake of controlling 
the sale of the mill's products. For, while Southern mill 
stocks are always splendid property, there must always be 
some extra inducement for capital to seek investment in 
distant localities. A mill, having a large part of its stock 
owned in this way, is restricted in the sale of its products 
to one special market, which market might at some time 
not be the best for that particular kind of product. 

All foreign capital is attracted to new enterprises at a 
distance by some distinct motive and is governed by well 
defined laws. Large amounts of Northern money have 
been invested in Southern cotton mills; but they have 
been inHuenced by the motive above mentioned, or have 
been invested in stocks of mills already successful, or with 
men well known as successful manufacturers. The dis- 
tant capitalist is attracted by success already accom- 
plished, and is not disposed to risk money to prove 
whether a new locality and a new people are both adapted 
to make a success of cotton manufacture. Success in a 
new m!ll or town once established often brings foreign 
capital without the askmg. 

The home capitalist is influenced largely by the same 
motive as the foreigner. He prefers for some one else to 
make the experiment in manufacturing; if it is a failure 



40 RAISING CAPITAL,. 

then he has escaped; ii it is a success, then he can go in 
and buy the stock or start a new similar enterprise. 

The average Southern town underestimates its ability 
to raise capital to build a cotton factory. Cotton mill 
property, like all other property, is cumulative. No town 
could raise the money at once to pay for all the property 
in it. 

When the author first went into business in Charlotte. 
N. C, in 1884, there was but Httle cotton manufacturing 
in the South, and in Charlotte but one mill. The author 
at once formulated a plan for enabling small towns to 
raise capital for manufacturing. 

This plan was published in several periodicals and was 
reprinted in the form of a pamphlet. As it covers the 
ground of installment mills so fully, it is reproduced here 
in full. 



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RAISING CAPITAL.. 41 

Preface to "A Plan to Raise Capital." 

While working as a machinist, and in other capacities, 
for the Bethlehem Iron Works, Bethlehem, Pa., I always 
carried some stock in one or more of the local Building 
and Loan .Associations at Bethlehem. 

Towards the latter part of my service with that com- 
pany, 1 devised plans foi the organization of a Savings 
Fund and Building Association. The plan was that nine 
of my fellow-workmen v/ith myself should form an asso- 
ciation for saving something out of our salaries and wages 
each month, and, putting these savings together, should 
use the fund, — not to loan, but to build houses for rent 
and for holding as investment. 

At $20.00 per month each, the ten of us would pay into 
the Association $200 per month. With this, we could 
.soon have built a house, and then with the continued pay- 
ments, and the rent from the first house, we could soon 
have built another, and so on. We thought of continu- 
ing this process of pa}ments and also the use of rents for 
building for a period of 10 years. Then we proposed to 
stop payments and use rents for dividends. 

Two of my fellow-workmen and I purchased something 
like 30 lots, having in view turning them over to this 
Association. 

Just l)efore the time for organization of this little 
Savinj{;'s Fund and Investment Association, I was appoin- 
ted master machinist of a large works out west, and the 
plans were never executed. The thirty lots are yet unde- 
veloped in Bethlehem, and are still the property of the 
two of us who survive and the estate of our third partner 
who has passed away. 

After going into business in Charlotte, N. C, on my 
own account, I worked out a modification of the same 
plan lor raising capital to build manufacturing plants, and 
published it in the -"slanufacturers Record of Baltimore 
and other periodicals. 

This plan of raising or accumulating capital has been 
utilized for building 15 or 20 cotton mills in the South, 
principally in the Carolinas. 



42 RAISING CAPITAL. 

This pamphlet gives a synopsis of the general plan as 
applied to bv.ilding cotton mills. The illustrations exhibit 
some of the mills which have been built by the use of the 
plan. 

D. A. TOMPKINS. 

Charlotte. N. C, June loth, 1899. 

The Pamphlet. 

There are in successful operation in the southeast a 
number of cotton factories built by money raised on the 
installment plan as the payments are made in a building 
and loan association. The writer had observed that in 
many towns there was a strong desire amongst the people 
to build and operate a cotton factory, but conceived it 
impossible to raise the capital at home because, as a rule, 
few people m towns or small cities have much unemployed 
capital It was further observed that in almost, if not 
quite every one of these instances, one or more building 
and loan associations were in operation with accumulated 
cash in excess of what was considered impossible to raise 
for the construction of a cotton factory. The conclusion 
was therefore reached that if a plan could be formulated 
by which acompany could be organized whose capital stock 
was made payable in the shape of regular weekly or 
monthly saving, then any ordinary community could raise 
the money to build a factory. 

Following out this line of thought it was found that 
with shares of one hundred dollars par value they could be 
paid in full as follows: (i) At the rate of one dollar per 
week per share the par value would be reached in a little 
less than two years. (2) At the rate of fifty cents per week 
the time would be a little less than four years. (3) At the 
rate of twenty-five cents per week the time would be a 
little less than eight \ears. All of these plans of payments 
have been tried at Charlotte, N. C, and in every case the 
result h.'is been successful. 

The plan (2) of fifty cents per week per share, it seems, 
is the most popular and the most suitable for all ordinary 
cases and places. At this rate the following would be the 
regular payments for about four years: 



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RAISING CAPITAL. 45 

On I share ($ lOo) 
'■ 5 shares ( 500) 
"10 shares ( 1000) 
" 25 shares ( 2500) 
" 50 shares ( 5000) 

In organizing a company each subscriber for stock 
makes the payments as above indicated either by the 
week or month. 

On the basis of sul)Scriptions aggregating one hundred 
thousand dollars there would be paid into the company 
in each year about twenty-five thousand dollars. With 
this amount of money the buildings could be constructed 
and paid for in the first year. Within the second year one- 
third the machinery could be purchased and put in opera- 
tion. In three years from the time of organization it would 
be usually possible to have the entire plant in operation 
with some debt, which could be paid off as the install- 
ments were paid in tlie last year. 

A capital of one hundred thousand dollars will build a 
mill of about five thousand spindles and two hundred 
looms which would furnish work for about one hundred 
hands. These estimates are only given for the purpose of 
conveying the most general idea. There are infinite con- 
ditions that might var}- any one of the items given, and 
therefore in each special case the general result might be 
different according to tlie cost of materials and the kind 
of product desired to be made. 

The -ihistrations and general data are taken from mills 
that have been built on the plan herein discussed. 

It goes without saying that the quickest time in which 
the capital can be accumulated is the best. If subscrip- 
tions can be procured on a basis of two dollars a week per 
share, thus making the capital payable in about one year, 
this would be the next best thing to having the money 
subscribed subject to call as it might be needed. Next 
to the rate of two dollars per week, then one dollar per 
week would be desirable. Then follows 50c. per week and 
25c. per week. 

The last named rate, while it has been proven practi- 



44 RAISING CAPITAL. 

cable in the case of a few mills, is undesirable, if the 
subscriptions can possibly be got to 50c. per week or more. 

The plan of fifty cents per week has been the most pop- 
ular one, and it has in all cases worked well, the result 
having been dividend-paying manufacturing plants. 

The completion of a mill may always be hastened beyond 
V hat could be done with the ordinary income, by borrow- 
ing money to complete the mill at once and then paying 
this money back as it is paid into the treasury in install- 
ments by the stockholders. Wherever this has been done 
the mill company has commonly made notes which have 
been made secure by indorsement of the directors. For 
this reason it is desirable to have a board of directors whose 
responsibility is well known. 

Some mills have been built, however, simply by invest- 
ing the money as it came from the members; and while 
this is somewhat slow, yet when the mill is finished and in 
operation it is usually so much property ahead for the 
stockholders, for it frequently represents money that 
would not have been accumulated at all except for the 
obligation of the stockholders to get together and save so 
much money each week or month. 

By the means of this plan any ordinary town has within 
itself the resources to establish a cotton factory. And 
besides establishing a factory the company is practically a 
savings institution for the people. Regular and systematic 
saving is probably the best of all means to accumulate 
money and at the same time encourage a spirit of thrift 
and co-operation amongst the people of any locality. Any 
good farmer could take one thousand dollars stock, pay- 
ing two hundred and fifty out of each crop for four years. 

A mill built on this plan, when once finished is just as 
good property for the stockholders and does a town or city 
just as much good as if it had been built with money 
brought from elsev/here. In fact it is more advantageous 
as its construction develops a latent resource out of which 
further development is sure to come. 

The preliminary preparation for the organization of such 
a company in the way of preparing the right kind of char- 






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RAISING CAPITAL. 45. 

ter, by-laws and subscription list should be left to the 
engineer selected to make plans and guide the company in 
the conduct of its affairs. 

It is very important for a company of inexperienced 
people to select a good engineer and then rely upon his 
knowledge, skill and judgment. Any attempt to build a 
mill w^ithout good counsel will be troublesome. Advice 
picked up here and there, free of charge, is worth just what 
it costs, viz., nothine,. A good engineer will charge a good 
fair price and will handle the matter just as a good lawyer 
would a lawsuit or as a physician would handle a case of 
sickness. There are numbers of good engineers in the 
country whose records for successful work become a guar- 
antee for the success of whatever they undertake. 

In order to give an idea of how a set of by-laws might 
be framed, the following: draft is submitted: 

By-Laws. 

Section i. Stockholders of this corporation shall be 
not less than t went}' -one years old. Minors may hold stock 
by trustees, but not otherwise. 

Sec. 2. Each stockholder must subscribe to the consti- 
tution and subscription contract, and put down opposite 
his signature the number of shares he or she may become 
bound to take. 

Sec. 3. There shall be an annual meeting on 

of each year, for the purpose of attending 

to the following business: 

(i) Hearing report of officers. 

(2) Election of Directors. 

(3) Any other business. 

Sec. 4. At regular and special meetings of stock- 
holders a majority of the stock shall constitute a quorum. 

Sec. 5. Special meetings of the stockholders may be 
called by the President or by the Board of Directors, pro- 
vided that ten days notice is given by publication in a well 
circulated newspaper, and notice by mail sent to each 
stockholder. 

Sec. 6. There shall be a board of five directors which 
shall meet monthlv. These shall be elected at the first 



46 RAISING CAPITAL. 

meeting of the stockholders for a period to extend to the 
time fixed for holding the first annual meeting. Then a 
new election shall be held for a board to serve for one year, 
or until their successors are elected. 

Sec. 7. None but stockholders shall be eligible as direc- 
tors. ^^'hen a vacancy shall occur in the board, the 
remaining directors may elect some one to fill the vacancy 
till the next regular meeting. 

Sec. 8. A majority of the board of directors shall 
be a quorum in the absence of the President. 

Sec. 9. The Board of Directors shall elect officers 
and shall instruct the ofiticers on general policies of the 
company. All actions of officers shall be taken subject to 
the approval of the Board of Directors. The Board shall 
have the books of the company examined once each year, 
and shall have monthly meetings at which the President, 
Vice-President, Secretary and Treasurer shall make full 
reports. The Board shall also be authorized to make a 
contract with a competent engineer to construct or direct 
construction of the mill. The officers shall be President, 
Vice-President, Secretary and Treasurer. One person 
may hold two offices but not more. 

Sec. 10. The duties of the President shall be as fol- 
lows : 

(i) Preside at all meetings, and have charge of the mill 
and its management. 

(2) x\ppoint all committees not otherwise provided 
for. 

(3) Take and keep bonds of the officers. 

(4) Call special meetings of the Board when he thinks 
necessary. 

(5) Employ and discharge all labor. 

The Vice-President shall do the duties of President in 
his absence. 

Sec. II. The Secretary shall keep records of all meet- 
ings, both of the Board and Stockholders, and sign the 
same, and exhibit books and papers and condition of mill 
at monthly meetings. 

Sec. 12. The duties of the Treasurer shall be as follows: 






X 




RAISING CAPITAL. 47 

(i) Collect installments, fines, interest and other dues 
from stockholders, and receipt for same. 

(2) Keep an account with each stockholder. 

(3) Sign all orders directed by the Board. 

(4) Keep all books except minute book. 

(5) Keep full and correct books of the company and its 
condition. 

(6) He shall give a bond as may be required by the 
directors, for not less than five thousand dollars. 

(7) Open an account with a bank approved by the 
Board and deposit therein all moneys of the corporation. 

(8) He shall exhibit all books and papers when called 
on by the Board. 

(9) He shall submit weekly and monthly statements of 
the company's affairs, also a full report each six months, 
and also at any other lime the Board may demand. 

Sec. 13. The Board shall fill all vacancies in ofifice for 
the unexpired term. 

Sec. 14. The Board shall appoint a committee of three 
at least ten days before the annual meeting to examine the 
books and other affairs of the corporation and make report 
thereof, which report shall be recorded in the minutes of 
the company's stockholders" meetings. 

Sec. 15. If any officer neglects his duty, commit a 
breach of trust, or for any other sufficient cause, he may 
be dismissed by the President or the Board. 

Sec. 16. If any stockholder shall fail for five consecu- 
tive periods to pay his weekly or monthly installments, 
then the stock of such delinquent may be forfeited by the 
treasurer, and after advertising in the manner required by 
law for the sale of personal property under execution, the 
same shall be sold at public auction for the account of such 
delinquent, and on the basis of its par value. There shall 
be deducted from the bid an amount sufficient to pay bal- 
ance due on stock, which may be paid in installments in 
the regular way; then there shall be deducted all dues to 
the company and expenses of sale incurred by the com- 
pany, which must be paid by the purchaser in cash. Then 
any remaining money shall be paid by the purchaser to the 



48 RAISING CAPITAL,. 

delinquent. Provided, however, that the forfeiture and 
sale of stock of any delinquent shall not release him or her 
from the original subscription. 

Sec. 17. Any member of the corporation not in arrears^ 
and holding stock m his own right, may assign and transfer 
his or her own stock to any person, and the assignee shall 
be entitled to the same privileges, and subject to the same 
penalties and liabilities as the original holder. But no 
assignment or transfer shall be valid unless made on the 
books of the corporation, in person, or by a duly author- 
ized attorney, provided, however, that no assignment or 
transfer of stock shall relieve the assignor of her or his 
liabilities as an oripinai shareholder, without the consent 
of the Board of Directors. 

Sec. 18. All assignments and transfers of stock must 
be made upon the books of the corporation, at least thirty 
(30) days before each annual meeting, in order to entitle 
the assignee to all the rights and privileges of the original 
shareholder at such annual meeting. 

Sec. 19. Any person desiring to subscribe for stock at 
any time after the organization of the corporation, may 
become a shareholder en such terms and conditions as the 
Board of Directors may prescribe. 

Sec. 20. The President, except as otherwise provided 
for, shall appoint such officers and employees of the cor- 
poration, as may be required from time to time for the 
prosecution of its business, and fix the amount of compen- 
sation to be paid them. 

Sec. 21. No proxy shall be recognized except for a 
specific meeting. 

Sec. 22. All elections of officers shall be held by ballot. 

Sec. 23. Certificates of stock shall be issued when 
stockholders shall have paid their installments in full. All 
certificates of stock shall be signed by the President and 
Secretary of the Company, with the seal of the corporation 
affixed thereto. 

Sec. 24. Two Directors may be elected by the Board 
to serve with the President as an executive committee to 
act on all matters for the Board in the interims of Board 



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RAISING CAPITAL,. 49 

meetings — such action to be subject to approval of Board 
when it meets. 

Sec. 25. The books of the Company shall be examined 
once each year by a professional expert book-keeper, who 
shall be paid by the Company. 

Sec. 26. All bonds shall be stock company bonds. 

Sec. 2^. All salaries of officers shall be fixed before the 
election of officers who draw salaries. 

By the plan herein explained, those towns in which the 
people are waiting for some capitalist to come and to build 
a mill, may help themselves and build a mill without out- 
side help. Capital naturally seeks investment amongst 
people who have themselves exhibited resource and capa- 
bility. When a cotton mill has been built on this plan, 
the result is not only a manufacturing plant for the town, 
but a savings institution has been worked out in the man- 
ner of raising the money with which to build the mill. 
Every one of the towns and cities of the southeast that are 
now well known as manufacturing places built their first 
factory out of native resources and without outside help. 
As a result, whenever New England money is looking for 
investment it is likely to go to one of these places where 
success has already been demonstrated. 

In one or tw^o cases another feature has been introduced, 
viz.: subscribers give notes for the amount of their sub- 
scriptions. By this plan the company has the notes to use 
for collateral in case of borrowing money, and if the notes 
are made interest-bearing, then the burden of interest falls 
on the subscribers and not on the treasury of the company. 
As soon as the mil? ir in operation the matter of interest 
balances, provided the profit equals or exceeds the interest 
account. If the stockholders pay the interest, then the 
mill ought to pay a dividenc' from the time it starts up. 
But, if the mill carries any interest account on account of 
any unpaid subscription.s. then the stockholders ought not 
to expect any dividend until the stock is paid in full. 

The factories built with capital raised on the above plan 
have all been successful and are now doing well. 



CHAPTER VI. 

llnveetments, Costs an^ iProCits. 

In order to answer the various questions naturally 
arising concerning the kind of mill to build, the accom- 
panying investment tables (see end of chapter) have been 
constructed, giving the cost of cotton mill plants of vari- 
ous kinds and giving in minute detail the results of opera- 
tions, to show what expenses and profits may be expected 
from mills of dififerent kinds and sizes. 

Periods of two weeks are usually taken in practice to 
reckon up the results of miU operations. This plan has 
been followed in the preparation of these tables. 

All oi the computations are made more with a view to 
perspicuity than to infinitessimal accuracy though the 
accuracy is great enough in each case to give the correct 
final result. 

Thci total pounds are carried out only to the nearest 
lOO pounds, and the iotal values to the nearest lo dollars. 
For example 15,500 pounds of cotton at 6^ cents would 
cost $1007.50. For convenience it is entered in the table 
at $1010. which is sufficiently accurate for the purpose. 

For convenience in discussing the subject, three sizes 
of mills are discussed: one costing $75,000, one $100,000, 
and one $175,000. 

The cables show that for mills designed for making 
single yarns $75,000 will build a mill with 3,000 to 4,500 
spindles, according to the number of yarn it is desired to 
spin. A mill to cost $100,000 would contain 4,200 to 
6,000 spindles according to number of yarn. A mill to 
cost $175,000 would contain 8,400 to 13,000 spindles 
according to number of yarn. 

This price includes everything complete for a first class 
modern mjli, built according to latest insurance regula- 
•■ions. containing automatic sprinklers, fire pumps, hydrants 
r-id hose, electric lights, steam heating and water closets. 



INVESTMENTS, COSTS AND PROFITS. 51 

It includes price of land at suburban farm prices, water 
supply, cotton warehouse and houses for operatives. The 
prices on which all the tables are constructed, both for 
first cost and for operating expenses, are based on current 
conditions in the Cjroiinas. 

Basis of Tables. 

It has Oeen abundantly proven by experience in the 
Caroiinas that cotton mills on every^ class of goods man- 
ufactured there, can make a profit of lo to 30 per cent. 
This has been done by the smallest as well as the largest 
mills on the coarsest and the finest yarns, single as well as 
twisted; and on the heaviest as well as the lightest weight 
cloths; and on dyed and undyed yarns and cloths. The 
variation in profit between 10 and 30 per cent, is caused 
by variation in prices of cotton and of manufactured 
goods, and also by variation in management. This last 
is a matter of human judgment, and as such, is the most 
variable factor that exists in any business in any part of 
the world Taking this central fact as a basis, the tables 
are constructed to show the detail of conditions that 
must exist in the physical operations of the mill in order 
to produce the limiting results of 10 and 30 per cent. 
It is not meant by this that mills of this character could 
not by bad management make less than 10 per cent, or by 
good management and favoring circumstances, make 
more than 30 per cent. The tables show the hmits 
between which each item of cost may vary and still, with 
average m?nagemeiit, keep the profits within the limits 
of 10 and 30 per cent. If any one of the items of cost 
should vary beyond the limits given and leave all other 
items the same, the profits might be expected to go 
beyond the limits of :o and 30 per cent, in the same pro- 
portion. 

Size of nills. 

Referring to table I for $75,000 investment, it will be 
noticed that to make number 8 yarn, (the coarsest given), 
the mill will contain only 3,000 spindles, while to make 



52 INVESTMENTS, COSTS AND PROFITS. 

number 30, it may contain 4,500 spindles. This is due to 
the fact that the coarser the number of yarn made the 
greater the amount of cotton that may be consumed per 
spindle. Three thousand spindles making number 8 yarn 
will consume 108 bales of cotton in two weeks, while4,5oo 
spindles making number 30 will consume only 31 bales in 
the same time. Therefore in the number 8 mill, the 
machinery for preparing cotton to spin must be capable 
of working much more (3^ times as much in this case) 
than for the number 30 mill, and hence the same amount 
of money will buy a complete equipment for fewer spin- 
dles on number 8 than on number 30. 

The iiiiil for number 20 is intermediate between these 
numbers and may coniain 4,000 spindles. 

First Cost. 

From the column marked "cost per spindle," it will be 
seen that a complete number 8 mill for single yarns costs 
$25 per spindle, while numbers 20 and 30 cost $19 and $17 
respectively. The floor space occupied by the machinery 
is about the same for the equal investment, no matter 
what number of yarn (within a medium range) is to be 
spun. 

For, while it is true that a given amount of money will 
buy for fmer numbers more spinning machines than for 
coarser numbers, there will be fewer machines required 
for the preliminary processes in the case of fine numbers, 
and thus the amount of floor space is fairly well equalized. 

It will be noticed that the cost per spindle in each case 
decreases as the mills grow larger. 

It is abvays desirable to build a small mill with a view 
to increasing it. The land should be so located that an 
extension of the building may be conveniently made. 

It is sometimes desirable to so design the mill that the 
increase may be made with the least possible changing 
and movmg of existing machinery. Mills should always 
be designed so that all machinery performing the same 
work will be in the same group. That is, all cards should 
be together in one part of the building, and all spinning 
together in another part. 



INVESTMENTS, COSTS AND PROFITS. 53 

A mill is usually designed for pickers in one end, then 
cards, then drawing, slubbing, roving and spinning. This 
throws the spinning at the opposite end of the building 
from the pickers. This is the end of the mill that is 
usually extended. If a mill is designed without regard to 
future extension, there will be just room enough in the 
card department to accommodate the cards for imme- 
diate use. If the spinning end of building be extended, 
there will be room to add more spinning, and keep it all 
together; but, unless the whole arrangement of machinery 
is remodeled, any additional cards must be put apart from 
the nrst lot. 

But if this enlargement is provided for in the original 
design, the card room will be made large enough to 
accommodate card room machinery for the prospective 
enlarg-ement. Then, at the time of the enlargement, it is 
only necessary to add enough to the building to accom- 
modate the additional spinning alone. In the above dis- 
cussion, it is assumed that if there are looms in the mill, 
they will be in the first story, while cards and spinning are 
in the second story. An enlargement on the above lines 
would, therefore, enlarge the weave room below at the 
same time with the spinning room above. 

A mill for enlarging in the above manner requires the 
building to be a little larger at first than if built without 
this provision. It is best to instah at first an engine large 
enough for the ultimate plant. The boilers may be added 
when needed. The electric Hght plant should be large 
enough at first. The shafting should be designed to 
transmit the entire power. There are some other minor 
details needing attention, none of which are very expen- 
sive. 

To properly build a mill with a view to doubling its 
capacity will cost about 7 per cent, more at the start than 
if built m the regular way. The ultimate equipment will 
cost less than if no provision for doubling had been prima- 
rily made. The costs of the mills in the tables are com- 
puted in the regular ^' ay, with no allowance for enlarging. 
If the mills specified as costing $100,000 are to be built 



54 INVESTMENTS, COSTS AND PROFITS. 

with a view to doublirg their capacity, the cost would be 
about $107,000. 

Cost of Operation. 

For purposes of discussing maximum and minimum 
conditions in the operation of mills in the tables, the price 
of cotton in each case is assumed at a lowest and highest 
price per pound, w^ithin the limits in which it would 
probably range for the numbers designated. 

For number 8 yarn, these prices are assumed in all cases 
to range from 5 to 5^ cents, while for number 40, they are 
taken from 5f to 7. Finer numbers require a better grade 
of cotton than coarser numbers. In many cases number 
8 and below is made from waste, at even lower figures 
than in the table. Likewise, numbers 40 and above are 
frequently made from benders,peelers or other long staple 
cotton, at even higher figures than in the table. 

The highest price lor product is figured in connection 
with the lowest price ior cotton, in order to show maxi- 
mum results, while the lowest price for product is figured 
with highest price for cotton to show minimum results. 
These conditions do not, in practice necessarily fall 
together, and in fact rarely do, because a low price of cot- 
ton (if long continued) has a tendency to produce a low 
price of product. Pjut the table is intended to show the 
respective results under the best and under the worst con- 
ditions likely to occur. 

Under the heading "Cotton Consumed," will be found 
a colunii' showing co?,t of cotton per pound of goods pro- 
duced These figures are greater than cost per pound 
of cotton bought on account of the waste made in the 
process of manufacture. The goods produced weigh less 
than the cotton from which they are made by about 15 
per cent. There is considerable variation in this item of 
waste, and some differences of opinion among mill mana- 
gers as to how it should be computed. These matters 
are more fully discussed in another chapter. For the 
present purpose, a uniform loss of 15 per cent, is allowed 
in all cases. (The amounts, however, tabulated under the 



INVESTMENTS, COSTS AND PROFITS. 55 

head ".i;;oods produced' are, for convenience, computed 
only to ^ht nearest lOO pounds.) For example, cotton 
bought at 5 cents per pound, costs 5.88 cents per pound 
of gooils. 

The pay of operatives rarely varies in the South with 
the price of goods, so that in the table the amount of pay 
roll (and thus the libor cost per pound of goods) remains 
the same under maxim.um as under minimum conditions. 

It will be noticed that the cost of labor per pound is 
materially less for the coarser than for the finer goods. It 
is also very slightly less for larger than for smaller mills. 

Whatever disadvantages there may be, in the way of 
increased cost of labor and other expenses in a small mill, 
as compared with a large one, they are largely offset by 
the advantage resulting from the closer attention to 
details which can bo given by the management in small 
mills. 

The number of operatives remains about the same for 
the same investment, w'ithin the range of numbers shown: 
that is, 40 operatives can run a mil! with 6,000 spindles on 
number 20 single yarn? or 6,500 on number 40, or 4.200 
on number 8, all of the c'bove sizes being $100,000 mills. 

The column: "all other expenses" includes salaries 01 
President, Treasurer, Superintendent and Bookkeeper, 
interest, insurance, taxes, fuel, oil, supphes, &c. It also 
includes freight on goodsfrommilltomarket, and thecom- 
missior. paid to the selling agent. In the operation of the 
mill there are some sundry items of income, such as rent 
charged on operatives cottages. These items are deduc- 
ted in the above tables from the sum of "all other expen- 
ses," and only the net amount entered. It is very nearly 
the same under maximum as under minimum conditions. 
The slight difiference shown is mostly due to the selling 
commission being figured in per cent, on the value of 
goods, the more valuable the goods, the larger the total 
sum paid for selling. 

The 'total cost ^n m.ake and sell goods," includes, of 
course, the cost of the raw cotton. As this cost is 



56 IXA'ESTMENTS, COSTS AND PROFITS. 

assumed to vary between maximum and minimum condi- 
tions there will be a variation in total cost. 

Profits. 

The value per pound of goods produced is made to vary 
in the tables to suit the original proposition of making a 
given profit per annum. From the profit to be made per 
annum, is computed the profit necessary to be made in 
two weeks. This two weeks profit is divided by the 
amouni of goods produced, to find profit per pound, this 
profii per pound is added to the cost of production, and 
the result is the price at which goods must be sold to 
realize the assumed profits. 

Having determined the price at which goods should be 
sold, a coulmn is given showing the difference between 
this and the price of the raw cotton. Thus it is seen from 
Table VTI that for a 8175,000 mill making number 2C 
single yarns, to make vn annual profit of 30 per cent, the 
difference between the price of the raw material used and 
the price (delivered to the markets) of goods produced 
must be 7.67 cents. This difference might be made up 
by an infinite variation in the prices of both the cotton 
and the finished goods. Cotton might be 5 cents and 
finished goods 12.67, ^^^ cotton 6 cents and finished goods 
13.67, while still maintaining the same dift'erence of 7.67 
and making the same profit. 

Kind of Goods to Make. 

In starting a new mill, the question is always asked 
what is tne best kind of goods to make. A common mis- 
take is to consult the price current or some commission 
man as to the ruling prices of various goods, and imme- 
diatelv decide to make the particular kind of goods which 
at the moment seems tc be the highest, or which seems 
to show the greatest profit. This is not a proper criterion. 
from the fact that the ruling price is always based on the 
demand ard supply for the moment. 

Again, the commission man, from whom advice is often 
asked as to kind of ^roods to manufacture, is not alwa^'S 



IN^'ESTMENTS, COSTS AND PROFITS. 



57 



unbiased in his opiniors. He is apt to advise a new miil 
to go to work on the particular hne of goods in which he 
is a spechHst. 

Existing mills keep AVLtch of fluctuating prices; and as 
soon as any one line of goods shows a better profit than 
-another they proceed to make that Hne. This process 
keeps any one line from remaining continually more pro- 
fitable than others. Therefore in deciding on the poHcy 
for a new mill, the deciding factor must be something 
other than the passing fancy of the market. 

In deciding upon the kind of goods a new mill should 
make, probably the foremost consideration should be the 
kind and amount of labor available. In New England 
and in the Philadelphia district the skill of laborers has 
reached a very high point. This skill has become widely 
disseminated, and it is comparatively easy to start any 
hne of textile manufacturing in those localities, with the 
assurance that skilled labor will be immediately available. 
Conditions are different in the South. While the South 
possesses the most tractable native laborers in the world, 
they have not yet ati-ained the variety of experience and 
skill possessed by those in the North and East. It might 
be said that a new mill may be built in the South without 
regard to this matter, depending upon bringing opera- 
tives from the skilled districts. But to induce skilled 
operatives to leave their homes and present emplovments 
for a new district to work in a new mill, the success of 
which is yet unproved, is not such an easy matter. A 
higher price must always be paid to cause the move to 
be made. Also people who must be induced to move are 
hard to manage; and v.dthout regard to the advanced price, 
both the employer and the employee are at a disadvan- 
tage: the former because it becomes so difficult to replace 
an operative when discharged or incapacitated; the latter 
because vdien discharged or out of work, he is so far 
removed from occupc.tions in his line. 

In some parts of the South, notably in the Carolinas, 
there has developed among the native' population a con- 
siderable amount of skill in the manufacture of medium 



58 INVESTMENTS, COSTS AND PROFITS. 

grade cotton goods, say as fine as is usually made from 
number 40 yarn. This skill is cumulative around the 
textih centres, and is spreading throughout the country, 
being thinnest at the edges of the textile districts. The 
skill is constantly growing better, until finally there will 
be a considerable amount of fine specialties manufactured 
in the South. At the present time the goods known as 
"specialties" even of cotton, such as lace and chenille 
curtains, carpets, fringes, &c., are not manufactured in 
the South. These goods make a profit to the manufactu- 
rer mostly by reason 01 the skill in manipulation. Com- 
mon cotton goods make the profit somewhat by reason 
of the skill used in their manufacture, but mostly by reason 
of low cost of the raw material. This fact may be more 
easily understood by studying the tables, even within the 
narrow hmits given, between number 8 and number 40. 

Those entering anew the manufacturing field should 
make some ordinary numbers of yarn for warps or knit- 
ting, say numbers 10 to 30; or if cloth is wanted, some 
plain white (or "grey" as commercially known, as against 
bleached white) ranging from 2.85 to 4.50 yards to the 
pound; or plaids, checks and ginghams ranging from 4 
yards to 7 yards to the pound. 

These numbers and weights are well within the reach 
of new beginners. When these are mastered, other and 
finer goods can be undertaken. 

Within the limits named above, what is best at any one 
time varies greatly. At any particular time nothing but 
the advice of a good mill engineer could determine what 
is best. Any of the counts or numbers within the limits 
would be safe, however, and a toss of a penny might deter- 
mine the selection. All are staple goods, and any one at 
any time might take the lead; and any one at any time 
might be behind. The relative position constantly 
changes, what is hindmost this year is liable to be fore- 
most next. It is a matter of varying trade and no one 
can foretell it. All staple products are fairly safe, but 
have their good and bad times. 

The output of plain staple goods is a naturally increas- 



INVESTMENTS, COSTS AND PROFITS. 59 

ing quantoty, by reason of the tendency of new mills to 
make them. This tends to drive those who are more 
experienced into making finer goods. The natural order 
of things is for the new manufacturer to make plain 
goods, and the older ones to change to finer goods. 

In finer goods and specialties it is a question of knowl- 
edge and skill. Whoever goes into these must have a 
good superintendent, know his man and be sure that he 
understands what he is doing. As we go upwards in 
manufacturing, knowledge and skill count for more, and 
raw material for less. Therefore, it will be seen that as 
we get into finer goods, we are more and more in compe- 
tition with education, knowledge and skill. 

In these fields, we lose the value of our advantages for 
the present, which are in raw materials, cheap labor and 
long hours. 

Much of the promise of the South and the whole 
United States, for that matter, is in export trade. For 
this trade, plain goods are all that is required. In this 
field, our natural advantages count for their full value. 

Analysis of flanufacturing Cost. 

The tables show that the cost of the various grades of 
manufaciured goods is made up in about the following 
percentage. 

No. 8. No. 20. No. 40. 

Raw Cotton 65 52 50 

Labor 15 33 35 

Other Expenses 20 15 15 

Total 100 100 100 

From the above showing, it would appear that in dis- 
tricts abo.mding in cheap cottons, but wanting in skilled 
labor, the coarser goods should be manufactured. This 
same fact is more forcibly brought out by examining the 
tables in =:;till another way. From table VII, it will be seen 
that in a iiiill costing $175,000 making single yarns num- 
ber 8, a difiference between raw material and finished 
products of 4.90 cents lesults in a profit of 30 per cent., 
while a difference of 3.86 cents results in a profit of 10 per 



60 INVESTMENTS, COSTS AND PROFITS. 

cent. A iinctuation of 1.04 cents per pound makes the 
difference between 10 and 30 per cent, profit. 

Referring now to the number 40 mill in same table, it 
will be seen that a difference of 10.32 cents per pound 
makes 30 per cent., while a difference of 6.65 makes 10 per 
cent. On this fine work it requires a fluctuation of 3.67 
cents per pound to make the difference in profit that a 
fluctuation of 1.04 cents made on coarser work. This is 
even more apparent if we compare the coarse work for 
single yarns in table VII (that requiring theleast skill) with 
the fi.ne work, making cloth in table IX (that requiring 
the greatest skill.) Here it is seen that it requires a diff- 
erence of 7.76 cents per pound to fluctuate the profit from 
30 to 10 per cent, whereas 1.04 cents per pound makes the 
same fluctuation in profit on the coarsest work and the 
least complicated product. 

Influence of Price of Cotton. 

Again, suppose in the $175,000 mill, making number 
8 single yarns in table VII, the price of cotton should be 
doubled under the ;;;o per cent, conditions. This adds 
5.88 cents per pound of goods to the expenses. Since 
the proHt under given conditions is but 1.63 cents per 
pound, ii follows that there will now be a loss of 4.25 cents 
per pound. This figures up an annual loss of 80 per cent, 
instead of a profit o'' 30 per cent. 

Now suppose in the $175,000 mill, making cloth from 
number 40 yarn, in Table IX, the price of cotton should 
be doubled under the 30 per cent, conditions. This adds 
6.76 cents per pound of goods to the expenses. Since the 
profit under the given conditions is 10.29 cents per pound, 
the profit under the doubled price of cotton will be 3.55 
cents per pound. This figures up an annual profit of a 
little more than 10 per cent. These figures show that 
considering the prif.e of cotton alone, a very small fluctu- 
ation makes a vast difference in the profits in working 
coarse goods, and hence it is only profitable to make 
coarse goods where cotton may be bought at the very 
lowest pomt. The fisures also show that a considerable 



INVESTMENTS, COSTS AND PROFITS. 61 

advance in the price of cotton makes comparatively little 
difference in the possible profits of a mill on fine work. 
Hence the further away from the cotton fields the mills 
are built, the finer the goods they are compelled to man- 
ufacture. 

Influence of Price of Labor. 

We wi'1 now take up the question of labor cost in the 
same manner, and see what fluctuation in labor cost is 
necessary to bring about a change in profit from 30 per 
cent, to 10 per cent, in the two extremes of coarse single 
yarns, and fine cloth. 

Table VII shows for $175,000 mill on number 8 single 
yarns, thpt the labor cost is .54 cents per pound. To 
make a profit of 30 per cent., the table shows that there 
must be a profit per pound of goods of 1.63 cents. Now 
suppose the cost of labor should be doubled, the profit 
would then be .54 cf^iits per pound less, which would make 
the profit 1.09 cents per pound instead of 1.63 cents. But 
even under these extraordinary circumstances, the annual 
profit figures 20 per cent., which only takes off one third 
of the original profit. 

Now refer to table IX for $175,000 mill weaving fine 
cloth from number 40 yarns. The labor cost is 4.80 cents 
per pound. For a profit of 30 per cent, there must be 
made a profit of 10.29 cents per pound. If the labor cost 
should, in this instance, be doubled to 9.60 cents, there 
would remain for profit 5.49 cents per pound, which 
figures out for the ye?r 11 per cent. This takes ofif about 
two third? of the original profit. Thus it is seen that 
doubling the labor cost in a fine goods mill affects the 
profits to nearly twice the extent that it does in a coarse 
goods mill. 

Influence of Price of Fuel. 

Another variable factor in the cost of cotton manu- 
facture is the cost of fuel. In the tables the fuel cost is, 
for convenience, included in the column "all other expen- 
ses." Tliis expense varies according to the character of 



62 INVESTMENTS, COST'S AND PROFITS. 

the steam plant. Small mills (5,000 spindles and less) 
usually install non-condensing engines, which consume 
more fuel than compound condensing engines. The latter 
is the kind usually installed in the larger mills. All of the 
plants covered by the tables are computed for non-con- 
densing engines. 

The cost of fuel per pound of goods produced varies 
greatly with the kind of goods. For coarse single 
yarns, it is about .25 cents and for fine cloth about .75 
cents. This is counting coal at $3.00 per ton deUvered at 
the mill. In order to observe the effect of a change in 
the cost of coal under different circumstances compare 
number 8 single yarns made in $100,000 mill in table TV 
with cloth woven from number 40 in $100,000 mill in 
table VI. For 30 per cent, in the former case, there must 
be a profit per pound of 1.86 cents. If the cost of coal is 
doubled from .25 to .50 cents per pound of goods (or say 
from $3.00 to $6.00 per ton) this profit is reduced to i.C: 
cents. This is equivalent to an annual profit of 26 per 
cent, instead of 30 per cent, or a reduction of four thirti- 
eths. In the case of the fine goods, the table shows aprofit 
of 11.64 cents per pound. If the cost of coal is doubled 
from .75 cents to 1.50 cents per pound of goods (or say 
from $3.00 to $6.00 per ton) the profits are reduced from 
11.76 to II. 01 cents per pound. This is equivalent to an 
annual profit of 28 per cent, instead of 30 per cent., or a 
reduction of two thirtieths. Thus a variation in the price 
of coal affects the profits in a coarse goods mill about 
twice as much as in a fine goods mill but not to a great 
extent in either case. 

In the chapter on Power, it is shown that either water 
or steam may be the cheaper power, according to local 
conditions. While it is of course advantageous to take 
the cheaper of the two in any special case, yet the above 
figures show that the cost of power, as usually made by 
steam, is but a small percentage of the cost of making 
goods. 

The great determining factors in cost are raw materials 
in coarse goods and labor in fine goods. 



INVESTMENTS. COSTS AND PROFITS. 63 



The great commotion about the South driving New 
England out of the cotton manufacturing business is 
illogical as well as unwise. The tables show that for fine 
goods the cost of raw material is of less moment, than the 
cost of labor. New England has the skilled labor for fine 
goods. The South has raw material for coarse goods. 

The foregoing discussion of the investment tables is 
but a small part of what might be written on them. A 
careful examination of each item in its relation to the 
others, presents much food for thought. 

Summary. 

Below is a summary of the respective effects on results 
of the items of raw material, labor and fuel. 

1. In a mill on coarse goods, doubhng the price of 
cotton may change results from a profit of 30 per cent, to 
a loss 01 So per cent. Doubling the price of labor mav 
reduce the profit from 30 per cent, to 20 per cent. Doub- 
ling the price of coa: may reduce the profit from 30 per 
cent. to 26 per cent. 

2. In a mill on fine goods, doubling the price of cotton 
may reduce the profit from 30 per cent, to 10 per cent. 

Doubling the price of labor may reduce the profit from 
30 per cent, to 11 par cent. Doubling the price of coal 
may reduce the profit from 30 per cent, to 28 per cent. 

3. \ anations in the price of cotton may change the 
profit in a coarse goods mill five times as much as in a 
fine goods mill. 

4- Variation in the price of labor may change the 
profit twice as much in a fine goods mill as in a coarse 
goods mill. 

5. Variation in th^ price of fuel may change the profit 
twice as much in a coarse goods mill as in a fine gtiods 
mill. 





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s 


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n 




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7.65 


6.44 


6.79 6.20 


6.47 


5.88 , 


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Goods. 




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g 1 g 


g 1 g 


Number. 


p 




i 


i 


i 


i 


1 


^ 

§ 


Total. 


1 




2.12 


2.12 


1.55 ' 1.55 

1 


.65 


.65 


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50 




■ 


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V. 




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1 


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1 1 1 I 


Total. 
















2© 


X 1 










1 1 






2.10 


2.15 


1.95 


2.05 


1.93 


1.95 


Per ft 
Goods. 


01 A 


2! 

1. 




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H 


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11.87 10.71 


10.29 


9.80 


9.05 ' 8.48 ' 

1 


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2.? 


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< 


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a e 










e 


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a. 






14.14 17.53 


11.89 ,14.61 


9.70 |l0.44 




-I 


8 


r ^ 


y 


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A. 

ift. 


Dif. between Cotton 
and Finished Goods. 








1 




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1 


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4 

n 


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3 




2.27 ' 6.82 


1.60 ' 4.81 


.65 


1.96 


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, 


ft 


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< 






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1.85 



9.71 



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1.83 



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1.85 



8.27 



13.15 |l5.82 



10.97 



12.92 



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9.90 



1.91 5.74 1.36 3.77 .54 1.63 



S I S I o I g I 5 I S 



Cost of Plant per 
Spindle 



Sq. feet Floor Space. 



No. of Yam. 



No. of Spindles. 



Bales. 



Founds. 



Price per 
Pound. 



Total. 



Per ft 
Goods. 



ttumber. 



Total. 



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Goods. 



Total. 



Per lb 
Goods. 



a O 

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n n 



Total. 



Per ft 
Goods. 



II 

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Pounds. 



Total 




Dif. between Cotton 
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Total. 



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6.73 



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Sq. feet Floor Space. 



No. of Yam. 



No. of Spindles. 



6.46 



Bales. 



g I 8 I § I 



4.29 



4.29 



2.71 



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.95 



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Goods. 



Number. 



3.06 



3.16 



2.13 



2.15 



15.51 14.18 



11.71 11.01 



1.95 



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19.59 



26.42 



14.12 18.24 



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Goods. 



n O 



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10.10 11.03 



12.24 



2.41 



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8.22 



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6.00 



3.75 



4.00 



3.00 



3.10 



17.22 15.90 



2.15 



12.90 



6.16 



4.00 



2.20 



12.36 



6.46 



1.40 



1.97 



9.83 



1.40 



2.00 



9.28 



21.39 



4.17 



12.50 



15.17 



2.27 



19.17 



6.81 



10.61 



.78 



11.61 



2.33 



S I S I 8 I s 



Cost of Plant per 
Spindle. 



Sq. ieet Floor Space. 
No. of Yam. 



No. of Spindles. 



Bales. 



Pounds. 



Price per 
Pound. 



Total. 



Per ft 
Goods. 



Total. 



Per ft I c 
Goods. I r 



Total. 



Per ft 
Goods. 






Total. 



Per ft 
Goods. 



B Q 



Pounds. 



Total. 



Dif. between Cotton 
and Finished Goods 



Total. 



Per ft 
Goods. 



Total. 



Per ''ent. 



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8.31 



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6.76 



4.80 



6.79 



3.10 



3.90 3. CO 



15.91 14.56 



2.00 



11.89 



6.31 



3.10 



2.05 



11.36 



6.46 



1.20 



1.87 



19.34 i24.85 



3.43 10.29 



13.83 17.13 



1.93 



.65 



I S 



5.88 



1.20 



1.90 



.53 8 



10.18 10.92 



1.94 



Cost of Plant per 
Spindle 



Sq. teet Floor Space. 
No. of Yam. 



No. of Spindles. 



Bales. 



Pounds. 



Price per 
Pound. 



Total. 



Per !b 
Goods. 



Number. 



Total. 

Per lb o 
Goods. I ? 



Total. 



Per ft> 
Goods. 






n n 



Total. 



Per lb 
Goods. 









Pounds. 



Total. 



Per lb 
Goods 



Dif, between Cotton 
and Finished Goods 



Total. 



Per B) 
Goods. 



ToUl. 



Per cent. 



a 


w 


z 


f 





m 


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HH 


5* 


X 


> 


1 


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w 



§ 8 
g 8 



TABLE X.— SHOWING THE NUMBER OF BALES OF COTTON 

ANNUALLY CONSUMED BY 1,000 SPINDLES ON 

DIFFERENT YARN NUMBERS. 



Yarn Number. 


Bales Cotton. 


Yarn Number. 


Bales Cotton. 


4 


1650 


20 


250 


6 


1 100 


25 


200 


8 


900 


30 


170 


10 


600 


3.5 


150 


12 


500 


40 


IIO 


14 


400 


45 


95 


16 


350 


50 


85 


18 


300 


60 


60 



CHAPTER VII. 

©ooJ?[?eepina an^ accounting. 

Bookkeeping for a manufacturing plant is a much more 
extended subject than the matter of bookkeeping for a 
mercantile or banking business. In bookkeeping for a 
mercantile or banking business the books show the status 
of the Company in relation to each of its customers. 
Periodic balances and statements and inventories are 
made to show what the business is doing. 

In manufacturing, it is all important to keep another 
series of accounts to show costs of production and costs in 
each department. It is only by these accounts that the 
skill and efificiency of operatives may be measured. It is 
by these that the perfections or imperfections, and. 
efficiency and inefTficiency of the machinery may be exactly 
located and known. 

From the regular accounts and these internal accounts, 
statements should be made up at frequent intervals, show- 
ing the profit or loss for the interval, showing the costs 
in each department, the production in each department, 
costs of wages, supplies, fuel, &c., &c. With such state- 
ments accurately and fully made, the management may be 
ICG, or even i,ooo miles away and still be in position to 
give intelligent directions. Without them, a manage- 
ment might live in a mill day and night and only have the 
most approximate idea of what is going on, except in a 
small mill where the entire scope of the work and results 
can be seen at one time. 

It is assumed that ordinary double entry bookkeeping 
is well understood by all good bookkeepers, and the sub- 
ject of the ordinary bookkeeping for a cotton mill will be 
discussed on this basis, with suggestions as to the changes 
to be made in ordinary methods, to make them conform 
to the requirements of manufacturing. 

The commercial part of the bookkeeping is usually 
worked in periods of one month, regular monthly balances 



BOOKKEEPING AND ACCOUNTING. 75 

being made to prove the accuracy of the books, and show 
the financial condition to date. 

The books kept to show data relating to the operation 
of the factory are no part of the commercial accounts. 
These are made up from daily reports from the different 
departments of the mill. From the data kept in these 
books, reports are made up at regular periods, sometimes 
once every two weeks, sometimes twice a month. 

Two Series of Books. 

In the discussion of bookkeeping and accounting, it 
must be kept in mind that there are two different series 
of books: (i) those to record and exhibit the commer- 
cial affairs of the company, (2) those to record and 
exhibit in detail the results of the mill operation and its 
physical condition. 

The commercial series will be taken up first. 

Grouping of Accounts. 

The principal accounts to be kept on the ledger are as 
follows : 

(i.) The Investment Group, comprising Real Estate 
Buildings, Machinery, Construction, Furniture and Fix- 
tures, Operatives Houses, Improvement and similar 
accounts, representing the original value of the plant, or 
additions to the plant which increase its real value. 

(2.) The Expense Group, comprising Cotton, Labor, 
Fuel, Supplies, Repairs, Salary, ]\Iill Expense, Office 
Expense, Insurance, Taxes, and similar accounts, repre- 
senting amounts expended for carrying on the business. 

(3.) The Representative Group, comprising Capital 
Stock, Cash, Bills Receivable, Bills Payable, Deprecia- 
tion, Profit and Loss, and similaraccounts representing the 
financial condition of the company. 

(4.) The ^Manufacturing Group, comprising Manufac- 
turing, Cloth, Yarn, Waste, Rent, and similar accounts 
representing the results of mill operations. 

(5.) Sundry Group, comprising Personal Accounts 
and such other accounts as would not naturally fall into 
any of the other groups. 



76 BOOKKEEPING AND ACCOUNTING. 

The accounts mentioned are all familiar to ordinary 
bookkeeping except "Manufacturing." This is an 
account created to carry from month to month the actual 
proportion of all the expenses incurred for the month. 
From daily reports and estimates made by the superinten- 
dent, each account in the expense group is credited at the 
end of the month with the amount consumed during the 
month, and manufacturing account is debited. Thus the 
balance on manufacturing at any time represents all the 
cost of producing goods from the beginning of the fiscal 
year to date, while the balances on the accounts in expense 
group stand for the amount of the various supplies, &c., 
not consumed. 

Cotton account, and all product accounts should have 
special columns ruled in the ledger to carry the quantities 
(pounds, yards, &c.) represented by the values in the reg- 
ular columns. 
Monthly Statements. 

At the end of each month, after the transfers to manu- 
facturing account, as above indicated, there should be 
made a balance sheet, an inventory and a financial state- 
ment. Form A shows a balance sheet, filled out for the 
purpose of making the financial statement. (See end of 
chapter for the form.) 

Form B is the inventory. On account of the fact that 
the accounts in the expense group now represent their 
own inventory, it is only necessary to enter in this inven- 
tory the mill products, including the stock in process of 
being manufactured. 

Form C is the financial statement, made up from the 
information given in forms A and B. This method of 
showing the profit and loss is recommended over the usual 
bank statement form as being better adapted to the con- 
ditions in a manufacturing plant. 

The assets constituting the permanent investment are 
grouped together and shown as a total. The other assets 
consist of the balances unconsumed on each of the expense 
accounts, together with the other usual book assets and 
the inventory. By this method, the assets will exceed the 
liabilities by the amount of the total profit made from the 



BOOKKEEPING AND ACCOUNTING. 77 

beginning- of the fiscal year up to date. The profit made 
for the current month (say $3936) is ascertained, as shown, 
by deducting from the total profit ($11,438) the profit 
which was made from the beginning of the fiscal year up 
to the end of the previous month (assumed to be $7,502.) 

Mill Reports. 

In addition to the financial statements made up at the 
end of each month from the commercial books, there are 
other statements made up from the other series of books 
at regular intervals, generally two weeks or twice a month 
to show in detail the operation of all the departments. 
These statements are made up from information furnished 
by the superintendent, and are independent of the books. 
They show among other things the profit or loss for each 
period and form a check on the results obtained from the 
commercial books. 

Blank for Yarn Mill. 

Form D is a blank for this purpose, filled out with imag- 
inary figures to show the operations of a mill making yarn 
for the market. Items i to 5 are for general information 
as to the production of the mill, as compared with what a 
mill of same size and on same kind of work, is capable of 
doing, according to standard production tables. This mill 
is supposed to be running day time only, for 1 1 hours per 
day or 66 hours per week. 

Items from 6 to 23 show in detail the cost of manufac- 
ture, separated out in such a manner that the labor cost, 
and all the other costs for which the superintendent is 
responsible, are distinct from the fixed charges and other 
matters for which the office management is responsible. 
The first column exhibits the total cost for each item, and 
the second column shows the cost in cents per pound of 
product. For example, the cost of the labor in picking 
and carding for two weeks is $170.00. This divided by 
24,810, the pounds of yarn produced, gives the amount in 
second column, .69 cents per pound. Item 22 shows the 
amount of cotton used and its cost at 6 cents per pound. 
This cost is $1710.00, which being divided by yarn produ- 



78 BCMDKKEEPING AND ACCOUNTING. 

ced 24,810 pounds gives 6.92 cents per pound of product. 
This, added to the aggregate of the other costs, gives item 
23, the cost of the goods when ready to leave the mill 
Items 24 to 33 show the estimated worth of all goods pro- 
duced, after allowing for the freight, selling expenses, 
cash discounts and other sundries. 

Waste. 

The amount of waste shown in item 30 is the difference 
between the weight of cotton used and the weight of pro- 
duct made. It is known as "total waste," and includes the 
so called "visible" and "invisible" waste. In item 31 the 
waste is expressed as a per cent, of the weight of raw 
cotton used, including bagging and ties, which is the 
weight of the bales as they are paid for. 

Visible waste is the amount that is accounted for on 
the superintendent's reports. It is the saleable waste. 
The invisible is that which cannot be accounted for. It 
is the difference between total waste and visible waste. It 
consists of sand and dust and moisture which may dry out 
of the cotton while being worked. The waste with which 
the management of the mill is most concerned is the total. 
This is the difference between the weight of the raw mate- 
rial he buys and the weight of the finished products he 
sells. There are other methods of figuring the percentage 
of waste in which the value of waste as a product is con- 
sidered as reducing the percentage. Therefore in making- 
comparisons of the percentage of waste made by different 
mills, it is necessary to know how the percentages are com- 
puted. 

Blank for Cloth Mill. 

Form E is a blank for the use of mills making cloth only. 
Items I to 8 show the production as in form D, and shovv^ 
the number of looms running on the various kinds of cloths 
that are usually made in this particular mill. The 
remainder of the blank is similar in all respects to form D. 

Blank for Mill on Cloth and Yarn. 

Form F is a blank for the use of mills making both cloth 
and yarn. It is similar to the other forms except as to the 



BOOKKEEPING AND ACCOUNTING. .79 

method of showing cost per pound. The first column 
shows, as before, the total cost of all the items. Tiie 
second column shows cost per pound of cloth including the 
cost of yarn used in making the cloth, and the third col- 
umn the cost per pound of yarn made for sale as yarn. 
There are certain items of cost per pound which belong 
equally to cloth and yarn, as for example, the labor in 
picking and carding. This is $180.00 for the whole pro- 
duct, both cloth and yarn, (24,000 pounds.) Therefore 
the cost per pound of this item is the same for both cloth 
and yarn, namely, .75 cents. 

The cost of weaving, $400, must be borne entirely by 
the cloth account, so it is divided by 18,000, the amount 
of cloth made. This gives 2.22 cents, and it is entered in 
the cloth column. The cost of preparing yarn for market, 
$25.00, must be borne entirely by the yarn account, so it 
is divided by 6,000, the amount of yarn made for sale. 
This gives .42 cents, and it is entered in the yarn column. 
Items 20 to 27 are assumed to be borne equally by cloth 
and yarn, and this assumption is near enough for the pur- 
pose, although cloth account should really bear a greater 
proportion, on account of the greater number of pounds of 
cloth produced. 

Other Forms. 

There are many other forms in which these mill reports 
might be made to convey the information required in 
special cases. 

Form G is a blank now in use by a large yarn mill 
making a great variety of yarns. This blank is made to 
give full information as to the amounts of each different 
kind of yarn produced. It also makes a comparison 
between the current work, and that done in the previous 
year. 

Form H is the left hand page of a special book made to 
record the data given on superintendent's daily reports. 

Form J. is the right hand page of the same book, facing 
form H. It is the record from which statements may be 
made up, answering the same purpose as forms D, E, F, G. 

Any of the foregoing forms may be printed in a book, 



so BOOKKEEPING AND ACCOUNTING. 

or may be printed as a blank for a report. Or it may be 
done both ways, keeping the book as a record, and sending 
out the blanks to various individuals interested. Still 
another way is to have blanks printed in copying ink, and 
copy them in a special letter press book kept for the pur- 
pose. 

Forms K and L are the left and right hand pages of a 
pay roll book. It differs in several particulars from the 
ordinary blank time book. It is ruled with enough verti- 
cal columns for two weeks, and also with some special col- 
umns whose uses are made plain by the headings. The 
horizontal lines are divided in two parts opposite the 
name of each operative, one for a record of time made by 
the day, and the other for time made by the piece. This 
book is kept in the ofiftce and is written up from the small 
books kept by the overseers of the different departments. 
For convenience in collecting data from this book, to shov/ 
costs, the names of operatives in each department are 
entered in separate groups. 

Annual Statements. 

At the end of the fiscal year the books should be closed, 
and statements made, much in the same manner as at the 
end of each month, though there are some important addi- 
tions to be noted. All asset accounts should be examined 
to see that the property represented is in actual existence 
and in possession of the company. The balances on 
expense accounts should be compared with actual inven- 
tories, and brought into accord with them. Personal 
accounts and bills receivable should be examined and 
scaled to allow for bad debts, if any. 

Depreciation. 

Allowance should be made for depreciation on the plant. 

During the progress of the business, various sums of 
money have been expended in keeping the machinery and 
buildings in repair, and these sums have been absorbed by 
the manufacturing account. Thus many mills consider 
that the question of depreciation has been compensated 
for. But this is not correct from two standpoints, (i) 



BOOKKEEPING AND ACCOUNTING. 81 

the machinery must, in the nature of things, finally wear 
out after a certain number of years. (2) Whether it 
wears out or not it is very likely to grow out of date. In 
either case, it is not an asset to the full extent of its first 
cost, as represented on the ledger. There can be no fixed 
rule as to the amount of this depreciation. It depends 
upon the progress of the times, as to new inventions, and 
upon the general care given to the property. Some per 
cent, must be estimated as the correct amount, and this 
should be charged against profit and loss each year. The 
question arises what account shall be credited to balance 
off this loss. The usual course is to credit it to the invest- 
ment accounts on which the per cent has been computed, 
with the idea of eventually extinguishing such investment 
accounts. But this is not a correct theory. If correct, it 
would give the appearance that the purpose of the man- 
agement is to go out of business and throw away the plant 
when all the investment accounts are extinguished. 

This is an obviously false impression. It should be one 
of the first principles of bookkeeping to show clearly the 
exact facts of every case, even if it forces a disregard of the 
traditions of bookkeeping. As a matter of fact, the inten- 
tion of the mills is to remain in business and keep up to 
date. To do this, they buy new machinery and charge it 
to machinei-}^ account. If no depreciation is being charged 
off, from year to year, the machinery account will con- 
tinue to grow, until it will represent an investment much 
larger than at first, while the capacity of the mill has not 
really been increased and the real value is no more than at 
first. If depreciation has been allowed for, and credited 
to machinery account, this of course will tend to equalize 
matters. But the trouble with this method is that there 
is no way of easily ascertaining from the ledger just how 
this equalization is progressing. In the meantime, the 
capacity of the mill may have been really increased by the 
addition of new machinery, all of which is charged to 
machiner}^ account, rendering it hard to differentiate such 
charges from those made against the allowance for depre- 
ciation. 



S2 BOOKKEEPING AND AGCOUNTING. 

To remedy these difficulties, and put the subject of 
accounting for depreciation on a correct and standard 
basis, the Author proposes the following treatment: 

Open an account called "Depreciation," or "Deprecia- 
tion Reserve." At the end of each year, fix upon the 
proper amount that should be allowed for depreciation of 
the entire plant, say three per cent. Charge this amount 
to Profit and Loss and credit it to Depreciation. This is an 
account created to hold as an asset, the amounts assumed 
to be sufficient to expend on the plant during the ensuing 
year to keep the plant up to date. Thereafter, when 
expenditures are made against this allowance, they are 
charged to Depreciation, (instead of to Machinery or to 
Buildings, according as the expenditure is on the one or 
the other). This gives an easy way to see at a glance the 
progress of the work of renewal, and to know when the 
appropriation for new work has been exhausted. 

In the case of an old mill wishing tO' begin this system of 
accounting for depreciation, the amount of depreciation 
already suffered must be estimated and charged to Profit 
and Loss, and credited to the investment accounts. Then 
.an additional amount must be set apart, say 3 per cent., 
as an estimate of the appropriation needed for the ensuing 
year. This latter amount is treated in the way above out- 
lined for new mills, namely charged to Profit and Loss and 
•credited to Depreciation. 

There will always be some trouble in accurately estima- 
ting the amount to be set aside each year for depreciation. 
In fact it can never be done in a way to be called accurate. 
But this is not important. The important thing is to have 
some regular system of making an allowance for deprecic- 
tion. As time goes on, it may be seen whether the allow- 
ance is too great or too small. One way of estimating it 
is to make up a list at the end of each year of the things 
that will probably have to be renewed in the next five 
years. Then take one-fifth of this as the amount to be 
set aside for the next year. Make up this estimate anew 
each year and thus correct any error of the previous year. 



BOOKKEEPIMG AND ACCOUXTING. 83 

Closing Books for the Year. 

Before making final closure of the books for the year, 
each product account should be credited with the amount 
of the inventory of that product at the estimated market 
value, less all freights and other expenses which would be 
incurred in selling it. The sum total of the inventon'.'S 
should be debited to an account called "Inventory." This 
is merely a temporary account to hold the inventories as an 
asset until the books are re-opened for the next year. (In 
re-opening, each product is charged up with the inventor}-- 
and Inventory account credited and thus closed.) After 
the product accounts are thus credited, each will show the 
amount actually produced, whether sold or not. All pro- 
duct accounts and all expense accounts should be closed 
into Profit and Loss, and the difiference between the two 
sides of this account will be equal to the difference be- 
tween the totals of all the asset accounts, and the totals 
of all the liability accounts. 

Statement Blanks. 

The annual statement may be as per fornis O, P and Q. 
These forms are especially designed to exhibit to stock- 
holders all details of the financial condition of the Com- 
pany, and the profits made, and the disposition of the 
profits. 

Forms O and P are filled out to show the condition of 
a new mill after the first year's run. The money expended 
on plant is seen in this case to be more than the capital 
stock by $21. GOO, and thus it is in debt. The net profits 
for the year, after allowing $5,000 for depreciation of 
plant are $40,960.00. This profit, though, is not all in 
cash, some of it being in stock on hand, and some in the 
form of notes and accounts. The whole available cash 
might be applied to extinguishing debts; but in this case, 
it vras decided to pay 10 per cent, in dividends, credit up 
$13,460 to a reserve for paying the debt on the plant, and 
$5,000 to a reserve for working capital and $5,000 to 
depreciation. It is the practice of some mills to pass to 
the surplus account all profits not required for dividends, 
but this statement shows a more rational treatment. 



84 BOOKKEEPING AND ACCOUNTING. 

because in reality there would be no surplus if debts were 
paid. 

Form O is the statement usually furnished stockholders. 
The inventory form P should be attached to statements 
furnished to directors. 

The inventory exhibit, of each item carried as an asset, 
is important to show the values upon which the statement 
is based. Inventory values are reached by adjusting the 
book values to the current market values, and carrying 
the differences to profit and loss account. Failure to 
make these adjustments might lead to such a showing 
from the books as would not approximately correspond 
with the true condition, thus misleading the bookkeeper 
and stockholders. It is a common error to consign goods 
and charge them at current market values; then, after 
holding them awhile, sell them for less than the original 
book valuation, and yet not make any correction for the 
differences. The continuation of this practice would 
bring into the annual statement a very serious error, by 
carrying as an asset a consignment account which could 
never be converted into cash. 

Form Q (accompanied by an inventory similar to foim 
P) is an annual statement, filled out to show the condi- 
tion of the same mill, after several years of prosperous 
running. 

In pursuance of the plan shown on form O, enough of 
the (so-called) surplus profits have been appropriated from 
year to year to extinguish the debt on the plant, and there 
is shown as a special liability an account carrying this 
amount $21,000. The reserve for working capital has also 
grown from year to year out of the surplus profits, until 
it reached $15,000 previous to the year represented by 
form Q. Out of that years profits $5,000 more was 
appropriated to go to the same account. 

Depreciation account has had various sums credited to 
it from year to year, and various sums charged to 
it for money expended in keeping the plant up to date. 
There still remains a balance to its credit of $4,800 for 
future use. In addition to this, an allowance of $5,000 
has been made out of the current years profits. 



BOOKKEEPING AND ACCOUNTING. 



85 



After all of these matters have been adjusted, the 
remaining profits, after paying dividends, have been 
passed up from year to year to surplus account, until it 
has grown to $40,000, without the current years surplus 
of $8,283. ^ 

As examples of other forms on which annual state- 
ments may be made, forms R and S are exhibited. These 
are forms selected from those in actual use in operating 
mills under good management. 

SURPl^US. 

It is seen from the above discussion that the word 
"surplus" is made to indicate the money that could be 
taken out of the business. It is well to carry a fair surplus 
fund as a guarantee for dividends in event the mill should 
have one or two bad years. 

Stockholders like, and ought to have, dividends at 
regular periods, the semi-annual plan being probably pre- 
ferable. 

The dividends ought to be regular also in amount. The 
management of a company should adopt sttch a plan as will 
equalize one year with another. The surplus account 
is the reservoir for the accomplishment of this equaliza- 
tion. Money is put into a manufacturing plant as an 
investment to bring regular returns in the shape of divi- 
dends. The system of books and accounts kept by a com- 
pany should provide, as outlined in the foregoing, for a 
proper depreciation to insure the maintenance of the 
property to its full efficiency and value, and also a surplus 
fund to carry surplus profits of good years for paying div- 
idends in bad years. Then the stock will always be attrac- 
tive and of good value. 

The question is often asked why the stocks of companies 
paying abnormally large dividends at irregular intervals 
should not command 2 better price than they do. The 
reason is that no provision is made for depreciation nor 
for any assurance of regular dividends. 



86 BOOKKEEPING AND ACCOUNTING. 

Form A. MONTHLY BALANCE SHEET. 

Capital Stock I20,00u. 

Real Estate 2,300. 

Buildings 18,400. 

Operatives Houses 12,100. 

Machinery 84,000. 

Furniture and Fixtures 98. 

Interest 610. 

Bills Payable 40.410 

Bills Receivable 475. 

Insurance and Taxes 682. 

Fuel 510. 

Supplies 3,1 18. 

Rent 1,10 ?. 

Waste 2,740. 

Cloth 60,476. 

Yarn 20,io^j. 

Cotton 38,917. 

Manufacturing 80,831. 

Unpaid Wages 1,278. 

Consignment 19,893. 

Cash 1 1,804. 

Personal Accounts i,iii. 28,740. 



274,849. 274,849. 



Form B. MONTHLY INVENTORY. 

Stock in Process (estimated) 5,000 lbs. @ loc 500. 

Cloth 50,000 yards @ 4c 2,000. 

Yarn 32,000 lbs. @ 13.9c 4,448. 

Waste 60,000 lbs. @ i^c 900. 

$7,848. 



BOOKKEEPING AND ACCOUNTING. 87 

Form c. MONTHLY FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 

ASSETS. 

Real Estate $ 2,300. 

Buildings 18,400. 

Operatives Houses 12,100. 

Machinery 84,000. 

Furniture and Fixtures 98. 

Investment 11 6,898. 

Insurance and Taxes 682. 

Interest 610. 

Bills Receivable 475. 

Fuel 510. 

Supplies 3,1 18. 

Cotton 38,917. 

Cash 11,804. 

Consignment 19,893. 

Personal Accounts i,iii. 

Inventory 7,848. 84,968. 

Total Assets $201,866. 



LIABILITIES. 

Capital Stock $120,000. 

Bills Payable 40,410. 

Unpaid Wages 1,278. 

Personal Accounts 28,740. 



Total Liabilities $190,428. 

Assets exceed Liabilities (Total profit this year 

to date) $ 1 1 ,438. 

Total profit shown on last months statement .... $7,502. 



Profit made this month (difference) $3,936. 



88 



BOOKKEEPING AND ACCOUNTING. 



Form D. — (Yarn.) 

MILL REPORT for Two Weeks Ending August 26ih, 1899. 



1 No. days run, 12; No. spindles run, 4992; Average yarn. No. 20. 

2 Yarn Produced 24,810 lbs. 

3 Production Table requires 23,363 lbs. 

4 More or Less than Table (more) i,447 lbs. 



7 

8 

9 

10 

II 



21 



22 
23 



24 

25 
26 

27 
28 

29 
30 
31 

32 
33 



ITEMIZED COST. 



Picking and Carding 

Spinning 

Spooling and Twisting 

Warping, &c. (Preparing for market) 

Engineer, Fireman, Watchman, Sundries. 



Total Labor Cost. 



13 Supplies 

14 Fuel 

15 Repairs and Mill Expense. 



16 Total Milling Cost (Including labor.) 



17 Salaries 

18 Insurance and Taxes 

19 Interest 

20 Ofl&ce Expense 



Total Cost to Manufacture. 



Cotton used, 56 bales; 28,500 lbs 
Total Cost of Goods. 



6cts. 



Value of Output. 

Yarn 24,810 lbs. @, 15c $3721.50 

Less Freight Est $125.00 

Less Commission, 5 per cent 186.00 
Less Discount, &c. 3 per cent iii.oo 422.00 
Net Value of Yarn del'd and sold 
Waste made 3690 lbs. est 6^ i^ 



(This is 13 per cent, of gross wt. of 
cotton.) 

Rents 

Total Gross Earnings 



299.50 
64.55 



50.00 



34 Net Profit for two weeks 

35 Equal to 10 per cent, per annum on |ioo,ooo 



AMOUNT. 



17000 
19000 
20000 
100 00 
5000 



71000 
5000 

15000 
5000 



960 
150 

75|oo 
100 00 

5000 



1335 
1710 



304500 



3414 05 



36905 



CTS. 
PER LB. 

.69 

•77 
.81 
.40 
.20 

2.87 
.20 
.60 
.20 



3-87 
.60 
•30 
.40 
.20 



537 
6.92 

12 29 



13-77 
1.48 



MEMORANDA. 

Orders now on book for: 

40,000 lbs. No. 18-2 yarn 

60,000 lbs. No. 24-1 yarn 

lbs. No ... yarn 

This is 55 days run of mill. 
Yarn made and not sold: 

10,000 lbs. No. 16-2 consigned 

7,000 lbs. No. 20-1 at mill. Have refused several orders for 24-1 
yarns on account of price. 



BOOKKEEPING AND ACCOUNTING. 
Form E.— (Cloth.) 

MILL REPORT for two Weeks Ending Aug. 26th, i5 



89 



1 No. days run, 12; No. Spindles run, 5,408: Average Yarn, No. 22. 

2 Cloth Produced, 93,000 yds 23,000 lbs. 

3 Production Table for Spinning requires 22,714 lbs. 

4 More or more than Table (more) 286 lbs. 

5 No. looms on 56x60, 4 yd 150; actual yds. per lb 4.04 

6 No. looms on 68x72, 4.75 actual yds. per lb 

7 No looms on 44x56, 6.50 actual yds. per lb 

8 No. looms running 150 



10 
n 
12 
i3 
14 
15 



28 
29 
30 

31 
32 
33 
34 

35 
36 
37 
38 

39 



Itemized Cost. 



Picking and Carding 

Spinning 

Spooling and Warping 

Slashing and Drawing in 

Weaving and Cloth Room 

Engineer, Fireman, Watchman, Sundries. 



16 Total Labor Cost 



17 Supplies 

18 Fuel 

19 Repairs and Mill Expense. 

20 Total Milling Cost (inclu ding labor) . 
21 
22 
23 

24 



AMOUNT. 



17000 
19000 

5000 

40 
500 

50 



Salaries 

Insurance and Taxes. 

Interest 

Office Expense 



25 Total Cost to Manufacture. 



26 Cotton used, 58 bales; 27,000 lbs. @ 6 cts. 



27 Total Cost of Goods. 



Value of Output 

Cloth, 93,000 yds. @ 4K 4185 00 

Cloth, yds. @ 



1000 

100 

150 

75 



132500 

150 

100 

150 

50 



1775 
1620 



4185.00 

Less Frt. Est I125 00. 

Less Commission, 4 per cent. 167.00. 
Less Discounts, &c. 3 percent 125.00. 417.00 
Net value of cloth delivered and sold $3768.00' 
Waste made, 4000 lbs. Est. @. 13/. . . 70.00 
(This is 15 per cent, of gross wt. of cotton. ) 

Rents 70.00 

Total Gross Earnings 



339500 



40 Net Profit for two weeks 

41 Equal to 13 per cent, per annum on iioo.ooo' 



390800 



51300 



CTS. 
PER LB. 



•74 
.83 
.21 

•17 

2.18 

.22 

4,35 
.44 
.65 
•33 



5-77 
•65 
• 44 
•65 



7.72 
7-05 



14-77 



17.00 



2 23 



90 BOOKKEEPING AND ACCOUNTING. 

(Form E Continued.) 

MEMORANDA. 

Orders now on book for: 

200,000 yds . . 4 yd. goods. 

yds .... 4.75 goods. 

140,000 yds 6.50 goods. 



This is 50 days run of mill. 



Goods made and not sold: 
250,000 yds consigned. 
(50,000 of this for export.) 



10,000 yds. at mill, 
(most of this is seconds.) 



BOOKKEEPING AND ACCOUNTING. 



91 



Form F.— (Cloth and Yarn.) 

MILL REPORT for Two Weeks Ending Aug. 26, 1899. 



1 No. days run, 12; No Spindles run, 6656; Average Yarn No. 24. 

2 Cloth Produced, 78,200 yds 18,000 lbs> 

3 Yarn Produced for Market 6,000 lbs. 

4 Total Yarn spun 24,000 lbs, 

5 Production Table for Spinning requires 23,960 lbs. 

6 More or less than table (more) 40 lbs. 

7 No. Looms on 56x60, 4 yd. 100; actual yds. per lb 4.02 

8 No. Looms on 56x40, 5 yd. 50; actual yds. per lb 4.98 

9 No. Looms on 64x64, 6.60 yd. . . ; actual yds. per lb 

10 No Looms running 150. . 



12 
13 
14 
15 
16 

17 
18 

19 



23 



24 
25 
26 

27 



ITEMIZED COST 



Picking and Carding 

Spinning 

Spooling and Warping for Weaving. . . 

Slashing and Drawing-in 

Weaving and Cloth Room 

Preparing Yarn for Market 

Engineer, fireman, watchman, sundries 



Total Labor Cost 



20 Supplies 

21 Fuel 

22 Mill Expense. 



Total, Mii^ling Cost (including 
labor) 



Salaries 

Insurance and Taxes 

Interest 

OflSce Expense 



28 Total Cost to Manufacture. 



29 Cotton used 56 bales; 28,500 lbs. @ 6 cts. 

30 Total Cost of Goods 



AMOUNT 



180 

200 

40 

40 

400 

25 
50 



93500 

12500 

14000 

6500 



126500 
15000 

loo'oo 

15000 

5000 



I7I500 

I7IOOO 



3425CX) 



CTS. PER LB. 



CLOTH lYARN 



•75 
•83 
.22 
.22 
2.22 

.21 



4-45 
■52 
•58 
.27 



5-82 
.62 
• 42 
.62 
.21 



7.69 
7-13 



14.82 



•75 
•83 



■ 42 
.21 



2.21 

•52 
•58 
•27 



3^58 
.62 
.42 
.62 
.21 



5-45 
7 13 



12.5& 



92 



BOOKKEEPING AND ACCOUNTING. 



(Form F Continued.) 

Value of Output. 

31 Cloth, 50,000 yds. @. 4j4c $2250.00 

32 Cloth, 28,200 yds. @ 4c 1128.00 

33 Yarn, 6,000 lbs. @ 15c 900.00 

34 

$4278.00 

35 Less Freight Est $125 

36 Less Commission 5 per cent 214 

37 Less Discount &c, 3 per cent 128 467.00 

38 Net value of goods del'd and sold38ii.oo 

39 Waste made, 4500 lbs. Est® 1 14' 79.00 

40 (This is 15.8 per cent, of gross 

wt. of cotton) 

41 Rents 70.00 

42 Total Gross Earnings 

43 Net Profit two weeks 

44 Equal to II per cent, per annum on 

$125,000. 



3960 
535 



MEMORANDA. 

Orders now on books for: 

yds 4 yd. goods. 

yds 4.75 goods. 

100,000 yds 6.60 goods. 

lbs. No. . . yarn. 

10,000 lbs. No. 20 yarn. 
This is 18 days run of mill. 



Goods made and not sold: 
400,000 yds. consigned. 



50,coo yds. at mill. 



15,000 lbs. yarn consigned. 



10,000 lbs. yarn at mill. 



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BOOKKEEPING AND ACCOUNTING. 95 

Tform H.— (Left Hand Page of Book.) 

Superintendent's Report for Month Ending 189. . 

Working Days. 



carding. 



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BOOKKEEPING AND ACCOUNTING. 
Form J.— (Right Hand Page of Book.) 

Mill Return for Month Ending 189. 

Working Days. 



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100 BOOKKEiEPING AND ACCOUNTING. 

Form O. ANNUAL STATEMENT. 

ASSETS. 

Value of Plant 1196,000.00 

Product on Hand 2.820.00 

Stock in Process ■ 10,000.00 

Cotton on Hand 3,036.00 

Supplies 1,167.00 

Fuel 1,525-00 

Bills Receivable 1,610.00 

Accounts Receivable (scaled) 8,169.00 

Selling Agents 6,200.00 

Cash 15,106.00 

Other Assets 1,14300 

$246,776.00 

IvIABILITIES. 

Capital Stock 175,000.00 

Previous Profits Expended in Plant over and 
above capital Subscribed 

Previous Profits Appropriated for Working Cap- 
ital 

Previous Profits Appropriated for Depreciation . . 

Previous Profits Carried to Surplus 

Bills Payable ■ |30,ooo.oo 

Accounts Payable 816.00 

Profits for This Year (23.4 per cent.) 40,960.00 

1246,776.00 
Disposition of Profits for this year. 

Dividends 10 per cent |i7, 500.00 

Passed to Value of Plant 13,460.00 

Passed to Working Capital 5,000.00 

Passed to Depreciation 5,000.00 

Passed to Surplus 

140,960.00 

Note.— Each item of this statement is based upon actual values 
determined by inventories. 



BOOKKEEPING AND ACCOUNTING. 101 

Form P. 

INVENTORY ACCOMPANYING ANNUAL STATEMENT. 

Value of Plant. 

Real Estate $ 2,000.00 

Buildings 18,000.00 

Operatives Houses 10,000.00 

Machinery 165,000 00 

Furniture and Fixtures 1,000.00 



$196,000.00 

Product on Hand. 

40,000 yds. 4 yd. Cloth @ 4>^ $1,800.00 

10,000 yds. 3 yd. Cloth @ 5 500.00 



2,oco lbs. No. 24 Yarn @ 16 320.00 

•' @ 

10,000 " Waste @ 2 200 00 

12,820.00 

Stock in Process. 

100,000 lbs. @ 10 cts. est f 10,000.00 

Cotton. 

100 Bales, 50,600 lbs. @ avge 6 cts $3,036.00 

Supplies. 

50 Gallons Oil $ 15.00 

Surplus Spools and Bobbins 200.00 

lbs. Surplus Belting @ 42.00 

2©, 000 lbs. Starch @. 2 400.00 

10,000 yds. Burlaps @, 4. 400.00 



Other Surplus Supplies 110.00 



$1,167.00 



Fuel. 



200 Tons Coal @ 3.25 $650.00 

500 Cords Wood (gj. 1.75 875.00 

$1,525.00 
JBiLLS Receivable 



$1,610.00 



102 BOOKKEEPING AND ACCOUNTING. 

(Form P Continued.) 
Accounts Receivabi^b. 



8,410.00 

Less Bad Accounts 241.00 

18,169.00 
Selling Agents. 



$0,200.00 
Other Assets. 

Unexpired Insurance and Taxes I127.00 

Unexpired Interest 42.00 

Horses and Wagons 974.00 



11,143.00 
Bills Payable. 



130,000,00 
Accounts Payable. 



h6.oo 



BOOKKEEPING AND ACCOUNTING. 103 

Form Q. ANNUAL STATEMENT. 

ASSETS. 

•Value of Plant 1196,000.00 

Product on Hand 5,000.00 

Stock in Process 10,000 00 

Cotton on Hand 6,000.00 

Supplies 1,400.00 

Fuel 3,000.00 

Bills Receivable 3,000.00 

Accounts Receivable 10,000.00 

Selling Agents 15,000.00 

Cash 40,000.00 

Other Assets 2,600.00 

1292,000.00 
I<IABII,ITIES. 

Capital Stock $175,000.00 

Previous Profits Expended in Plant over and 

above Capital Subscribed 21,000.00 

Previous Profits Appropriated for Working Cap- 
ital 15,000.00 

Previous Profits Appropriated for Depreciation 

(Balance not Expended.) 4,800 00 

Previous Profits Carried to Surplus 40,000 00 

Bills Payable 

Accounts Payable 417.00 

Profits for This Year (20.4 per cent.) 35.783.00 

1292,000.00 
Disposition of Profits for this year. 

Dividends 10 per cent |i7, 500.00 

Passed to Value of Plant 

Passed to "W orking Capital 5,000.00 

Passed to Depreciation 5,000.00 

Passed to Surplus 8,283.00 

135,783.00 

Previous Surplus |4o,ooo.oo 

Surplus Made this Year 8,283.00 

Total Available Surplus $48,283.00 

Note. — Each item of this statement is based upon actual market 
values determined by inventories. 



104 BOOKKEEPING AND ACCOUNTING. 

Form R. ANNUAL STATEMENT. 

STATEMENT OF PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT. 

Profits from all sources, viz: 

New York sales | 

Local Sales 

Waste Sales ... 

Fuel to Emploj-es 

Rents 

Net Profits from Store 

Any other Profit Accounts 



Total gross profits for 3-ear.. . . 
From which deduct 

Interest $ 

Repairs 

Total $ 

Less Dividends, &c 



Bal. net profits for year $ 

At credit of profit and loss acc't last yr . . 

Total netpfts, nowatcrdtof p. &l.acc't.|; 



STATEMENT OF THE FINANCIAL CONDITION. 

ASSETS. 

Real Estate $ 

Construction 

Machinery 

Office Furniture and Fixtures 

Teams 

Supplies 

Sundry Accounts Receivable 

Cash 

Cotton 

Waste 

Manufacturing — Stock in Process 

Goods on hand in cloth room not baled 
Inventory of New York consignments. . 
Any other Assets 

Total « 



BOOKKEEPING AND ACCOUNTING. 105 

(Form R Continued.) 

LIABILITIES. 

Capital Stock paid in $ 

Bills Payable 

Selling Agent acc't. cur'nt 

Sundry Accounts Payable 

Wages— last half of this month 
Bal. at credit of profit & loss acct 

Total « 



-STATEMENT OF EXPENDITURES ON ACCOUNT OF THE 
EXTENSION TO PLANT. 

For Construction I 

For Machinery 

For any other part of Plant 

Total ^ 

STATEMENT OF OUTSTANDING LIABILITIES AND QUICK 

ASSETS. 
Total outstanding liabilities, not including capital and profits.^ 
Total available quick assets, not including the plant 

Balance, debt on plant 4 



106 BOOKKEEPING AND ACCOUNTING. 

Forms. ANNUAL STATEMENT. 

FOR YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 3I, 1898. 

By Manufactured Goods (sold and on hand) $ 

By Collected for Rents 

By Sale of Waste 

By Sale of Bagging and Ties 



1613,162 55 

DR. 

Paid for Cotton $ 

Paid for Labor 

Paid Interest 

Paid Discount on Goods 

Paid Freight and Drayage 

Paid Sundry Supplies 

Paid Salaries 

Paid Taxes 

Paid Insurance 

Paid Water Rent 

Paid for Coal 

Paid for Starch 

Paid for Oils 

Paid for Expense 

Paid for Repairs 

Paid for Wood 

Paid for Stationery 

Paid for Live Stock, Carts, etc 

1541,764 42 



Net Earnings for the year $ 71,398 13 

Deduct Non-collectible Accounts 1,021 79 



Net Profit for year ending December 31, 1898 70,376 34 

Add to credit Profit and Loss, January i, 1898 88,960 24 



$159,336 58 
Less amount January and July Dividends 77)032 00 



To Credit Profit and Loss, January i, 1899 $82,304 58 



BOOKKEEPING AND ACCOUNTING. 107 

(Form S Continued.) 

CONVERTIBLE ASSETS. 

Supplies, Wood, Starch, Oils, etc | 

Coal 

Open Accounts (all good) 

Cotton— 1,659 bales, 789,684 lbs 

Cotton in process 

Live Stock, Carts, etc 

Cash 

Baled Goods, 632,197 yards 

Bills Receivable $245,935 07 

LIABILITIES. 

Wood Tickets 4 

Bills Payable .!..!...". 

Railroad Fare 

Personal Accounts 

Labor and Salary accrued 

$ 74,241 50 

Commercial Capital 1171,693 57 

Commercial Capital January i | 

From Sale of Stock 

Profit for year ending December 31, 1S98 

1248,725 57 
Less January and July Dividends 77,032 00 

$171,693 57 

BALANCE SHEET. 

To Dr. of Construction $810,123 30 

To Dr. of Real Estate 81,38771 

Total Cost of Mill and Operative Houses $ 891,511 01 

Convertible Assets as above 245I935 07 

$1,137,446 08 
LIABILITIES. 

Capital Stock $980,90000 

Liabilities (as above) 74^2^1 ^^ 

To Cr. Profit and Loss, January i, 1899 82,304 58 

$1,137,446 08 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Xabor. 

It is often asked whether the people of the South can 
adapt tlieniselves to mechanical and manufacturing piu-- 
suits. There is a prevailing idea that there is some doubt 
concerning this point. In the early days of the republic, 
the South was the enterprising part of the Union in the 
line of manufactures and industrial development. In 1810 
the manufactured products of Virginia, the Carolinas and 
Georgia exceeded in value those of all the New England 
States taken together. The South Carolina Railway was. 
when it was built, one of the greatest engineering under- 
takings in the world. The first steamship ever to cross 
the Atlantic Ocean went out of Savannah. These facts 
are broug]it forward, not for any invidious comparison, 
but to show that the present generation of people in the 
cotton growing area has an unsurpassed heritage of taste 
for manufactures. 

The profit of cotton raising with slave labor drew peo- 
ple away from manufactures to cotton planting. 

On the abolition of slavery, the capabilities of the peo- 
ple to organize and conduct manufactures showed itself 
again. 

The manufacture of iron, cotton, cotton oil, lumber. 
&c., &c., was promptly commenced as soon as slavery was 
abolished. It has gone forward with wonderful rapidity. 
There would seem to be no reason to apprehend that the 
labor in the South is less capable than that of any other 
part of the world, and it seems fair to assume that with 
education and training as fine goods may ultimately be 
made in the cotton growing states as anywhere in the 
world. 

It would require a book to tell the story of the former 
well developed manufacturing interests of the South, of 
the manner in which it was dried up by the development 
of the institution of slavery and of its prompt re-establish- 
ment on the abolition of slavery. 






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LABOR. 109 

This re-establishment was not commenced immediately 
after the civil war, because of the chaotic disorder brought 
about by the abolition of slavery and the enfranchisement 
of the negro. For nearly a quarter of a century after the 
civil war, it required llie very best judgment, all the 
energy and all the moral and physical courage of the 
white people of the South to save civilization and pre- 
serve the social status. Many a time in this period things 
looked dark and gloomy. The Anglo-Saxon, in this, as 
in other instances, has borne the white man's burden and 
come out in the end gloriously successful. The social 
status of the white people has been preserved unimpaired, 
and race controversies are all well nigh settled on line? 
satisfactory to both races, and for the best interests of 
both. 

We have no such mixture of people as they have in 
Cuba and other Latin countries. In the future we will 
have no such disorder as the Latin countries, (with their 
heterogeneous mixtures of races and blood,) are always 
having. Every obstacle to the development of manufac- 
tures has been removed. In many parts of the South the 
development is already well advanced and in others it will 
undoubtedly grow rapidly. 

White and Colored Labor. 

Cotton mill labor is practically all white labor. Negroes 
are sometimes used for draymen, firemen and other such 
purposes where there is little or no contact with the 
white organization. It would seem impossible to work 
a force of mixed white and black labor where white 
women and negro men would be brought in daily relations 
as co-workers. In laundries negro women work very well 
with and under more or less direction of white women. 
There is no instance, however, where a mixed organiza- 
tion of whites and blacks of both sexes have worked 
toget lor successfully. 

Before the civil war negro slaves were in a few instances 
worked with tolerable success in a few of the isolated 
factories that survived through the institution of slavery 



110 LABOR. 

In the penitentiary of South Carohna the negro con- 
victs do successful work in a knitting mill. The State of 
Alabama has a small cotton factory where negro com-icts 
are worked on coarse goods, but the experiment has de- 
termined nothing so far. 

One comprehensive experiment has been made at 
Charleston, S. C, to operate a large factory \\'ith negro 
labor. The effort failed. The factory had failed twice 
before with white labor, and this experiment is by no 
means of itself conclusive. 

An effort is being made at Concord. X. C, by an enter- 
prising negro to build a cotton mill with capital subscri- 
bed by negroes, and to be operated by negroes. This 
enterprise is not pro-pering. the mill having been in 
course of construction several years and being not yet 
finished. Some of the capital already obtained came from 
white people as a matter of good will to the negro race. 

Xegroes undoubtedly make good laborers in cotton 
seed oil mills and in many occupations. It is doubtful 
whether they can ever be successfully used as cotton mill 
operatives, and probably nothing but time can determine 
this question. The best judgment would seem to be that 
they will never be available as cotton mill operatives 
except in the more menial occupations. Possibly, after 
a long time when the white operatives shall have left the 
coarse work behind, negroes may become successful in 
this work. It would not seem advisable for a cotton mill 
at this time to undertake to work negro labor, for the 
reason that they are of doubtful efficiency for this work, 
and for the reason that it would disorganize the force of 
white labor. 

Dependence upon the negro as a laborer has done infi- 
nite injur}- to the South. In the past it brought about a 
condition which drove the white laborer from the South 
or into enforced idleness. It is important to re-establish 
as quickly as possible respectability for white labor. 

Any very material increase in the prosperity of a peo- 
ple, and especially one which takes the working element 
from agricultural to expanding manufacturing pursuits, 



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LABOR 111 

soon brings up questions of the proper relation of employer 
and employee. The increased prosperity is attractive to 
both the employer and employee. The employer is almost 
always thrifty and economical. Most of the employees 
also appreciate .the opportunity that regular cash compen- 
sations give for an, improved condition of living. 

Some few employers, however, are more than thrifty and 
economical. They are greedy, ^nd are disposed to take 
advantage of the system of handling labor in manufactur- 
ing, to oppress labor and disregard the ordinary motives 
of humanity, to make a little more money. On account 
of these few, it becomes necessary, amongst all developing 
manufacturing interests, to make laws relating to the 
employment of labor, both for the benefit of labor itself 
and for the better class of manufacturers. 

There is also a small percentage of labor that is thriftless 
and wasteful. People of philanthropic disposition are 
often mislead by the condition of these inherently bad or 
weak people into suggestions of extreme labor laws that 
would be unfair both to the manufacturer and those work- 
ing people who do work regularly and honestly. 

Labor Laws. 

The condition of the small element of working people 
who are weak, or bad, or both, cannot be improved by 
making restrictive laws. The preacher and the philan- 
thropist must find ways to bring moral influences to bear 
on these. No law that could be passed relating to factorv 
labor could affect the evil in a man who himself loafs and 
lives upon the proceeds of his children's labor. Even if the 
law forbade his children to work, the man's debased nature 
would not be altered by such a law, and could only be 
altered by those who are charged with the work of improv- 
ing the moral influences amongst work people, and espe- 
cially among those who are most in need of such influences. 

The best work of improvement amongst work people 
is brought about by the best element of the work people 
themselves. Those who follow the subject theoretically 
are almost always extremists. They frequently propose 
laws that offend the better element amongst the working 



112 LABOR. 

people, and in writing and talking about the need of 
improvements, they generally take examples from the 
small thriftless element, and propose laws to meet the 
chronic complaints of these. Such laws are generally 
harsh towards the employer, and would have little or no 
value to the real honest working element. 

The conservative manufacturer and the conservative 
working element should not leave this subject of labor laws 
to people who are theoretic on one side and utterly thrift- 
less on the other. It would be better to formulate and 
advocate conservative measures for the protection of labor 
on one side and the manufacturer on the other. The pros- 
perity that comes from the successful development of man- 
ufacturing interests should be, and will always be, of 
advantage to both the owner of a factory and the worker 
in it. 

Church and School. 

It should never be forgotten that the moral shortcom- 
ings of working people, and of employers alike, are more 
properly reached by the preacher and the teacher than by 
law. Many who discuss this subject of improving the con- 
dition of working people seem to fall into the ,error of 
thinking that labor laws can be made to reform a drunkard 
or cure laziness. 

As manufacturing interests continue to develop, tlie 
knowledge and skill of the working element will always 
increase and their condition will continue to improve. In 
the increasing complication of more extended and finer 
work, laws regulating the relations of employer and 
employees will become necessary. 

The two most important factors in improving the con- 
dition of factory operatives are: 

1. By means of church influence. 

2. By education. 

With the extension of church influence and the exten- 
sion of education, the condition of the working man or any 
other man is bound to improve. The patient and consci- 
entious preacher and the patient and conscientious teacher 
will bring about more and better results for good than 
can ever be done by law alone. 



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LABOR 113 

Labor laws should supplement these linfluences and allow 
them to assist, rather than be made aggressive, harsh 
upon the employer, and useless in promoting moral and 
educational influences. On the other hand, there should 
be no hesitation about making conservative laws to break 
down, as much as possible, the barriers that stand in the 
way of the establishment of the best influences by the con- 
scientious preacher and teacher, and for the personal wel- 
fare of honest and real working people. 

There are but few instances in which a cotton mill man- 
agement fails to take interest in the welfare of the opera- 
tives. This interest extends to the subject of church and 
school facilities. The fact is sometimes lost sight of, how- 
ever, that cotton mill operatives are not a class to them- 
selves. They are as human as any other humanity, and 
are entitled to individual consideration on individual 
merit, as other humanity is. It would not seem to be 
good policy, nor would it be right for the management of a 
cotton mill to attempt any sumptuary regulation of the 
affairs of its operatives. It is the duty to control the or- 
ganization in the mill, and in all things relating to the mill. 
In religion and in education the corporation or its man- 
agement are as much outsiders as the neighboring mer- 
chants or doctors or lawyers. A family of good and respon- 
sible people naturally want to employ a physician of their 
own choosing. They should also select their own church. 
There may be exceptions to the rule where mills are iso- 
lated in the country. In the latter case, in the absence of 
medical, church and school facilities, the corporation man- 
agement would naturally be solicitous to have medical ser- 
vice, church and school facilities within reach. Under 
these circumstances, requirements as jto some contribution 
from the operatives (which would otherwise be sumptu- 
ary) become a practical necessity. 

In two ways the general condition of cotton factory op- 
eratives will be improved. 

(i.) As knowledge and skill increase, finer and higher 
priced goods will be made. 

(2.) The making of finer goods will bring into the man- 



114 LABOR. 

ufacture of cotton, suitable occupations for educated peo- 
ple, such as designing and finishing fine fabrics, &c., &c. 

The whole field is a wide one, both for advancing the 
condition of labor now employed, and for introducing 
labor which is better educated than that now obtainable. 

As time goes on, there must be more schools and better 
schools.. If improvement is kept up as it doubtless will 
be, m the future there will be schools of chemistry, phys- 
ics and such sciences and arts as are necessary to qualify 
operatives to produce fine bleached goods, printed goods 
and various fine fabrics requiring artistic taste and scien- 
tific knowledge. 

As manufactures develop, and the organizations of 
working people in the mills become larger, there can be 
no doubt but that laws should be enacted for the protec- 
tion of both the working people and the mills. These 
laws should limit the age at which children may work in 
a mil], regulate the hours of work for the whole organi- 
zation, and provide such other regulations as may from 
time to time be required by the growing interests. Proper 
provisions for education is most important, but any laws 
on this subject should be general, and should apply to 
other people exactly the same as to mill operatives. It 
would seem desirable to make attendance upon school 
compulsory. Religious training is most important of 
all. This is a subject that is beyond the reach of any 
laws, except those to make favorable surroundings for 
church work and influence. While the management of 
cotton mill companies should, and usually do, take 
great interest in the subject of religion and education, 
they ere subjects that belong to the commonwealth and 
the moral influences of each community. 

Relation of Employer and Employee. 

The question of what are proper relations between a 
manufacturing corporation and its employees is a very 
difficult one to settle to the satisfaction of the operatives 
on the one side and the stockholders on the other. In 
some cases, mill managements take great interest in such 
subjects as church facilities, libraries, &c. Too much 



17 



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LABOR. 115 

interference in these matters that are outside the business 
relation, is in danger of becoming sumptuary, and hence 
offensive and harmful to the employee. Mr. Pullman's 
well-known experiment in making a model city and a 
model organization of model employees is now notable 
chiefly for its failure. 

In one instance in the South, where every care was 
taken to provide libraries, reading rooms, churches, 
preachers and doctors for the benefit of operatives, a crit- 
ical writer, on visiting the place, declared that the corpor- 
ation, with its surroundings, was a "beneficent despo- 
tism." 

In general terms, it would seem to be advantageous 
for the corporation and its management to do whatever 
is helpful to its employees in every endeavor they make, 
or can be induced to make, to help themselves. To go 
farther than this is to become sumptuary, which is harm- 
ful. It is not to be gainsaid that "God helps them who 
help themselves." It can hardly be expected that a cor- 
poration or its managers could improve on His methods. 

For those who wish to help work people, more of 
friendly intercourse with them, and less urging of unne- 
cessary laws and less published criticisms would be advan- 
tageous. If the drunken and lazy element could be elimi- 
nated from the factory village, and the notoriety seekers 
could be eliminated from the other side, the honest work 
people and their honest friends would have much less 
trouble in working out good results. 

Quite a number of people set themselves up as philan- 
thropists, and write much about mill operatives and their 
needs. Many of these know little or nothing of the mat- 
ters ihey write about, and have not the slightest sympa- 
thetic relation with the working people. In one 
instance, in which a distressing story was told about the 
hardships endured by working people, the writer (who 
wrote in good faith) confesses that he found, to his sur- 
prise, that he had offended the work people, from whose 
neighborhood he wrote. 



CHAPTER IX. 

©peratives' Ibomee. 

Factories generally build houses for the accomodation 
of their operatives. There is a rough rule that the house 
ought to furnish one operative for each room in the house. 
Thus a factory with 300 employees, would require too 
houses having an average of 3 rooms each. 

Factory houses are usually built around the mill, and 
form a little village to themselves. This seems at present 
the most satisfactory plan in the South, for both the mills 
and the o[»eratives. They seem disposed to live to them- 
selves and attend their own schools and churches even 
when the mill village is in a city. 

In New England, the factories seem disposed to aban- 
don the plan of owning houses for operatives. The ope- 
ratives seem to prefer to own their houses or rent in loca- 
tions of their own choice. It seems as if the general upward 
tendency is in this diiection. As operatives become better 
educated md more prosperous, they will be less disposed 
to live in groups to themselves, and more disposed to 
mingle with people in other callings, thus acquiring a 
broader and more equable view of life. 

New Designs. 

It was formerly the custom to build for operatives long 
rows of houses exactly alike, and in most cases adjoining 
one another. But it has transpired that this is not the 
best plan. Different families have different tastes, and as 
operatives grow in intelligence and prosperity, this differ- 
entiation in taste becomes more marked. 

Recognizing this tendency, the author several years 
ago, designed a line of new factory cottages, many of 
which have been built, and have proved to be very desira- 
ble and pleasing. Engravings of some of these houses are 
shown, with memoranda of approximate cost in the Caro- 
linas. 

Where land may be bought by the acre at a reasonable 



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CPERATIVES' HOMES. 117 

price, plenty of room should be allotted to operatives 
houses. In fact the ability to get this room should be one 
important deciding factor in locating a plant. It is well 
to have half an acre for each house. If they stand in rows 
or streets, they should not be less than 75 to 100 feet from 
centre to centre. A half acre lot is just about the right 
size for the average lot. Most families have scant tinie 
to devote to gardening, because so many members of the 
family are occupied in the mill. Therefore a larger lot 
would be apt to be neglected. At the same time, it is 
well to encourage the planting of vegetables and flower 
gardens, as being conducive to general contentment 
among the operatives themselves, and as being an advan- 
tage to the mill company in making a cleanly and attrac- 
tive property. 

The whole matter of providing attractive and comfort- 
able habitations for cotton mill operatives in the South 
may be summarized in the statement that they are essen- 
tially a rural people. They have been accustomed to 
farm life, where there is plenty of room. While their con- 
•dition is in most cases decidedly bettered by going to the 
factory, the old instincts cling to them. The ideal 
arrangement is to preserve the general conditions of rural 
life and add some of the comforts of city life. 

Failure to recognize this general principle has in at 
least one instance (known to the author) contributed to 
the utter failure of a large cotton mill located in a large 
seaport city. Operatives from country mills would be 
induced to go there, and would be subjected to the 
routine of strictly city life, which they could not learn to 
like. The result was that all good operatives (who could 
obiain work in their old districts) would leave, and the 
mill with strictly city environments was left with only the 
least competent operatives. 

Sanitary Conditions. 

The sanitary^ condition of a mill village is very impor- 
tant. This must in all cases be looked after by the offi- 
•cers of the mill company. This is generally in the hands 
•of the superintendent under direction of the president. 



118 OPERATIVES' HOMES. 

In most cases there are no water closets but only 
privies in the back yard. The mill company should in all 
cases make a permanent arrangement to have these kept 
well cleaned and the ground sprinkled with lime at least 
twice a week. While some of the families might attend 
to this, themselves, there are many families in which there 
is no one to attend to such matters. Separate families 
usually have no facilities for such work. The mill com- 
pany can make a good and cheap arrangement to care for 
the cleanliness of the privies much better than the opera- 
tives can. 

Arrangements should be made to inspect at regular 
intervals the operatives houses and yards. These are 
generally very well kept but sometimes one family would 
be careless, and the rest of the village would suffer if an 
inspector did not correct isolated faults. 

The mill companies formerly did not charge rent for 
houses, but this is changing. The State of South Caro- 
lina recently passed a law prohibiting the employment of 
factory operatives over 1 1 hours per day. Before this 
law went into effect, the mill companies did not charge 
rent on operatives houses. Now, however, they charge 
75 cents per month per room, and in some cases $i.oo. In 
some cases the charge is 20 cents per room per week. 
Kitchens and unfinished shed rooms are usually rated as 
half rooms. 

The following set of specifications is submitted to 
show about the kind of house recommended. This is not 
submitted as a perfect model, and might not suit some 
localities. It may serve as a guide in making specifica- 
tions to suit individual ideas. 

Specifications for 4- Room flill Tenement Houses. 

The contractor is to furnish all material and do the con- 
struction work as per specifications below, in accordance 
with plans to be furnished, under the direction and subject 
to the approval of the President of the Company and of 
the Engineers of the Company or their authorized repre- 
sentatives. 






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OPERATIVES' HOMES. 119 

The following i.s a list of the work the contractor is to 
•do. 

(i.) Build . . . .houses of four rooms each with pantry 
and halls as per plans attached, which are a part of the 
specifications under this contract. Build one small out- 
side closet for each house. 

(2.) -Ml sills of ncuses to be set on brick pillars; pillars 
to be noi more than S feet centre to centre. The founda- 
tion of pillars to be not less than lo" below surface of 
ground, and more if nature of soil requires. The lowest 
pillar to be not less than 24" above surface of ground. 
The pillars at all corners of house to be three brick square 
and those intermediate to be two brick square. 

(3.) A]\ sills of houses to be 6"x8" good sound lum- 
ber. Ccrner posts to be 4"x6''. Door posts, window- 
posts and chimney posts to be 4"x4". Braces 2"x4" and 
to extend to within 2" of top of corner posts. Plates, 
studs and rafters 2"x4". Sleepers of floors to be 2"x8", 
and joist overhead 2"x5". One row of bridging to each 
room for sleepers and joists. 

(4.) Window sills 2" thick, and window, door and cor- 
ner stiles iV' thick and to show 5" face. Window and 
door cappmgs on outside to have a weather drip on top 
1" thick and overhanging i", to be beveled and rabbeted. 

(5.) Boxing on gables and under eaves to be 10" and 
finished w:"th suitable moulding. Frieze boards to extend 
10" below boxing. All roofs covered with good sound 
saw^ed pme shingles 

(6.) Weatherboarding to be f " thick and show 5^^", to 
be of novelty pattc-n v^hich will be selected by the Presi- 
dent of the Company. 

(7.) Flooring, tongue and grooved, i" thick and not 
more than 4" wide. 

(8.^ VVainscoating to be placed in front hall and 
kitchen, and to be of tongue and grooved ceiling not more 
than 4" wide, with beads and suitable capping. 

(9.) Washboards i''xio" (including moulding) to be 
placed arcund all walls in houses. 

(10.) All window and door facing inside to be 4" wide 



120 OPERATIVES' HOMES. 

and furnislied with band moulding. The doors in houst2 
except front and closet doors to be 2'-8"x6'-3" and i^" 
thick, O. G. with 4 panels. Front doors to be s'x/' and 
to have neat glass panels, which will be selected by the 
President of the Company. Closet doors to be 2'x6'. O. 
G. i^ " thick with 4 panels. Large doors to be hung with 
not less than 3^" butt hinges and furnished with good 
knobs and locks will, brass or wrought iron keys. Closet 
doors to be hung villi not less than 3" butt hinges and 
furnislied with good locks and good keys. Closet walls 
to be lathed and plastered same as room walls. Closets 
to contain shelves. 

(11.) All windows except that in pantry to have good 
substantial frame of sufficient size to hold two sash of six 
io"xi4" Hghts each, and are to be furnished with a suit- 
able catch to lock and hold sash. 

(12.) All interior walls, except those of rear hall to be 
plastered, with three coat work, including skim coat. 
Picture moulding to be placed around top of walls. 

(13.J Two fire places are to be built in houses, as 
shown on plans, each to have neat and substantial mantle. 
Chimneys to be built of brick on a good solid foundation. 
Fire piaces to be 3' wide at front and 30" wide at back; 
30" high and 14" deep, snd flues to be of sufficient size to 
give a good draft. Hearths to be laid with hard burnt 
brick and 13" wide from jams or face of chimney. Chim- 
neys to extend at least 4I" above comb of roof. All 
chimney fines to be cleaned down and plastered inside A 
flue of sufficient size is to be provided in room back of 
front hall for stove pipe connection. On top of kitchen 
a flue of safe fire height is to be built to receive stove pipe. 

(14.) Piazza to be built in front of house as shown on 
drawing, s'lls to be .i''x6" set on brick pillars not more 
than 8" apart from centre to centre, and are to be two 
brick square. Sleepers 2"x8" joist 2"x4", width of porch 
to be 5 feet, and to be covered with beaded ceiling and 
then shingled same as house roof. Flooring to be the 
same as in house. Porch roof to be plain shed roof with 
pitch enough to gi\'e good drain. Pitch of main roof on 



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OPERATIVES' HOMES. 121 

house to be about 40 degrees or one foot lower than a 
square. Porch column to be 4^x4" with central portion 
turned to some neat pattern, and brackets of suitable 
design pl.iced on each side of columns at top. Back porch 
is to be latticed as shown on drawing. Steps of sufhcient 
height and width are to be placed at front and back 
porches. 

(15.) Lumber to be good second grade, not absolutely 
free from knots but no large or loose knots, and no piece 
wholly knotty. 

(16.^^ Studs to be not more than 20" centers. Sleep- 
ers and joists to be not more than 24" centers. Blinds to 
be placed on all windows. They are to be two piece blinds 
with adjustable shutters, and are to be hung with substan- 
tial catch hinges, and to have catches on inside. 

(17.) Houses to be painted with two coats paint on 
outside, including steps and all exposed wood, except 
shingle roof. Also two coats inside on all exposed wood 
surfaces. All paint used to be of good quality. The 
houses may be painted with two or three different colors; 
the colors and trimmings to be selected by the President 
or his representative. 

(18.) I he contractor is to take the ground as it is, and 
deliver a turn key job, following the specifications and 
also the drawings attached. The intention is that the 
contractor shall make a complete job. If any details are 
omitted in this writing, the contractor shall furnish such 
details nevertheless without extra charge. All work to 
he done m a substantial and workmanlike manner. 



CHAPTER X. 

IPower. 

The power generally used to operate a cotton mill is- 
either steam or water. In some industries gas is begin- 
ning to be used to a considerable extent, and it looks as if 
gas engines might come in at an early date as a competitor 
of the steam engine and the water wheel. It has already 
done so in the natural gas region. Engines of considera- 
ble dimensions are now being built to run with gasoline, 
ordinary illuminating gas, or producer gas made for the 
purpose. There is an impression in the minds of many 
people tnat electricity is one of the sources of power for 
operating machinery. This is not true, and wherever 
electricity is used it only serves the purpose of transmis- 
sion in the same manner as shafts and belts. The elec- 
tricity is always generated by steam, water, gas or in a few 
cases by wind or other forces. The question is often 
asked "Which is cheaper steam or water power." In very 
general terms, and for the commercial reader who is not 
interested in details, the cost of power is about as given 
below: 

Cost of Steam Power. 

400 H. P. II hours per day. 

CorHss Compound Condensing Engine, 

Cost per H. P. per Year $12.50 

400 H. P. II Hours per day Single Cylinder: 

Corliss Engine Condensing IS-^^ 

400 H. P. II Hours per day. Single CyHnder: 

Corliss Non-Condensing 17-50 

Cost of Water Power. 

400 H. P. Water — low cost development, not seri- 
ously troubled with droughts or floods 7.50 

Same with more expensive development and 

less regularity IS-^^ 

Same with still more expensive development 

and less regularity 25.00 



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POWER. 12S 

Same under expensive development and much 

floods or droughts, or both 100.00 

All these conditions are found in practice, both as to 
steam and water. 

These figures in all cases, of course, are average esti- 
mates. Better or worse results are frequently obtained. 
The price of fuel is an important factor in influencing the 
ultimate cost of a horse power by steam and also by gas. 

Where natural gas is obtainable at 25c. per thousand or 
less, the gas engine has been found so economical as to be 
extensively adopted, and it is growing in favor. 

Considering water powers in connection with electric 
transmission, the first cost of the transmission might be 
in an average case $100 per horse power. The interest 
on the above would make the operating expense of this 
part $5.00 per horse power. Assuming the cost of repairs 
and attendance to be $2.00 per horse power and the cost 
of water power itself to be only $5.00 per horse power, 
we would have a total of $12.00 per horse power, or very 
little less than the minimum cost of steam power. Thus 
it is seen that a good water power with a transmission 
plant is about the equivalent of a good coal mine and a 
first class steam engine. 

There are various other factors, the changing values of 
which might bring infinite changes in these comparative 
results. ^ 

Water Required foi* 5team Plants. 

The amount of water required to make steam for 
engines dififers with the type of engine and its size. For a 
compound condensing Corliss engine of 400 horse power, 
it is 14 to 18 pounds per horse power per hour, or say 13 
gals, per minute for 400 horse power. For a single cyhn- 
der condensing engine, it is about 20 per cent, more; for a 
single cylinder non-condensing engine it is about 50 per 
cent, more than a compound condensing, or say 20 gals, 
per minute for 400 horse power. But the amount of 
water reauired to make the steam in the case of the con- 



124 POWER. 

densing engine is but a small amount of the total. It is 
only stated above as a measure of the relative economy of 
the various types of engines. Condensing engines require 
water for condensing the exhaust steam. The amount of 
it depends upon the temperature. At such temperatures 
as are usually found in running streams, the water 
required is about one gallon per horse power per minute. 
Many mills, finding it difficult to obtain as much water as 
is indicated above, have recourse to large ponds, into 
which the water is discharged after having been used for 
condensation. It is pumped out of the pond and used 
over and over. The evaporation from the surface of the 
pond cools the water to some extent, thus making a con- 
siderable fuel economy by condensing, but not quite so 
much as with cooler water. Another device for saving 
water for condensing purposes is the cooling tower, 
which is provided with a large blower to deliver air at the 
bottom of tower into a descending shower of water 
pumped in at the top. This is a very good arrangement 
where the power to be developed is large, and the water 
supply small. The water required with this system is but 
little more than is required to make the actual steam. 
On this basis, a 400 horse power compound condensing 
engine would require from 15 to 25 gallons of water per 
minute. But it is always well to provide for ample water 
supply, always somewhat in excess of the above figures 
which are fair averages for good conditions all around, 
without allowance for bad management. 

Fuel Required for Steam Plants. 

The fuel required to operate a steam plant varies some- 
what with the kind of boilers employed, but varies to a 
much greater extent with the kind of engine. With 
usual standard boilers, the fuel consumption varies about 
as the amount of water required to make steam for the 
engine. Under good average conditions the amount of 
coal consumed per horse power per hour for 400 horse 
power is about as follows: 

Compound Condensing if lbs. 

Single Cylinder Condensing 2^ lbs. 



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POWER. 125 

Single Cylinder Non-Condensing 3 lbs. 

Expressed as total tons of coal per day of 11 hours for 
400 horse power, it would be about as follows: 

Compound Condensing 4 tons. 

Single Cylinder Condensing 5 tons. 

Single Cylinder Non-Condensing 6^ tons. 

Steam economy is affected by so many conditions, that 
the above estimate must be taken only as a suggestion as 
to what is actually possible in good practice. In some 
cases, the water and fuel consumption might be found 
less than that given; and in many cases it would be found, 
more. Smaller engines show less economy and larger 
ones slightly more. 

Relative Value Coal and Wood. 

The relative value of coal and wood. is variable.' 
With good wood and bad coal, one cord of wood might 
be equal in value to one ton of coal. With good coal and 
bad wood, it might require four cords of wood to be equal 
in value to i ton of coal. As an average, it is generally 
considered that two cords of wood equals one ton of coal. 
About I -J cords of long leaf Carolina pine is equal in value 
to I ton of Pocahontas coal. This is a comparison of the 
very best wood with an excellent coal. 

Transmission of Power. 

The cost of shafting, hangers, pulleys and belts to 
mechanically transmit power from the source in the same 
building is for a cotton mill $15 to $25 per horse power. 
Under the same conditions, the cost of electric apparatus 
to transmit the power (practically without shafting, &c.) 
is about double the above. There is usually no advantage 
in this. The advantage in electrical transmission is when 
the source of power is at some distance from the mill, or 
is for some reason inacessible. 

It is claimed that there is a saving in electrical trans- 
mission even in the same building, owing to the reduction 
of friction due to displacing the shafting. But in a cotton 
mill, this claim has not been demonstrated. But there are 
other cases, as in some machine shops, where electric 
transmission makes a great saving. 



126 POWER. 

The first cost of plant for electrical transmission is about 
as follows: 

For near by transmission (^ to 4 miles) where ordinary 
direct currents can be used 

Generators 10.00 

Motors 10.00 

Wire Switches, &c 10.00 

Total, about 30.00 per H. P. 

From one to five miles, with alternating currents, gen- 
erators of 1,000 to 2,000 volts, and with transformers at 
the delivery end, to reduce current for use on low pres- 
.sure motors, the first cost is about $50.00 per horse 
power. 

For long distance transmission, 5 to 40 miles, with gen- 
erators for ordinary pressures, step up transformers, step 
down transformers, and all pole lines, wires and appliances 
the first cost is $75 to $100 per horse power. 

There seems to be a growing business in the develop- 
ment cf cheap and extensive water powers for the purpose 
of electrically transmitting the power to cities to sell at io 
much per horse power per year. When new industries 
can be promoted in the cities, to use this power, their 
plants may be biiilt with special reference to using this 
source of power. That is, no steam plant would be pro- 
vided, and but little shafting. If the transmitted power 
to be supplied is reliable and cheap, then it is a logical 
thing to use it under these conditions. But where there 
are established industries on a paying basis, equipped with 
good steam plants, it requires considerable inducement 
on the part of the transmission companies to cause the 
owners oi such established plants, to abandon steam and 
use the new power. 

Proposition to Furnish Electric Power. 

The author knows of one case in which transmitted 
pov/er was offered to a cotton mill using about 400 horse 
power of steam, running day and night. The cost of 
•steam power to this mill, day and night was $30 per horse 






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POWER. 127 

power per year. The transmission company proposed 
that the mill should buy the electric motors and install 
them at the mill's expense, and pay for the power $25 per 
horse power per year. This was rejected and a counter 
proposition made as follows: 

The transmission company must do the following: 

1. Furnish all motors. (See item 7.) 

2. Install the motors and other apparatus and make the 
change from the old to the new system without shut- 
ting down the mill. 

3. Make the installation in such a way that the old steam 
plant may be re-connected at a moment's notice. 

4. Supply current with regularity. 

5. Guarantee a saving in power of 20 per cent. 

6. Make no charge for power at such times as the mill is 
not running. 

7. Sell the motors and installation to the mill at not more 
than J^20 per horse power, and take pay for it in 5 yearly 
installments with an interest charge of 6 per cent, per 
annum on average dates. 

8. The charge for power is to be $15 per horse power per 
year for day service and $10 for night service, or $25 for 
day and night. 

The apparently exacting nature of this proposition 
shows how entirely satisfactory it is possible to make a 
steam plant; and how difficult it will be for any sort ot 
transmitted power to displace steam in large installa- 
tions. 

The greatest value of electrically transmitted power i» 
in its distribution and use in small units. A cotton mm 
where a satisfactory steam plant is already installea 
presents ihe most adverse condition for the economical 
use of water power transmitted by electricity. In new 
mills, and wherever power is used in small units, electrical 
transmission becomes economical and valuable. 



c:hapter XL 
Sale of products. 

Nearly all cotton mill products in the United States are 
sold through commission houses. They take orders for 
cloth and yarn and transmit them to the mills. They look 
after the sale and delivery and the collection of the money. 
For this service the mills usually pay a commission of 5 
per cent, on yarn and fancy cloth, (including ginghams 
and the like), and 4 per cent, on white or "gray" cloth. 
This charge includes the guaranteeing of the account by 
the commission house, and also any charges for insurance 
and storage. 

But there are usually some other charges such as 2 per 
cent, for cash in 10 days. Most goods are sold nominally 
on 60 days time; but the time is frequently extended by 
future datings and extra allowances. 

The principal yarn market in the United States is Phil- 
adelphia, and the principal cloth market New York. There 
is some yarn sold in New York, Boston, Providence and 
other points, but the yarn commission merchants are more 
numerous in Philadelphia than elsewhere. Both the New 
York and the Philadelphia houses sometimes have 
branches in Chicago, St. Louis and Cincinnati. There 
are also some independent commission houses in these 
cities, handling mostly cloth. 

The yarns which go to Philadelphia, New York, Prov- 
idence and Boston are sold to weavers who do no spin- 
ning. Many of these weavers use a great variety of yarns, 
and it would never pay them to spin. Some of them use 
cotton warps and wool fillings. In many cases, several 
different kinds of yarns will be used in the same cloth. 
Much yarn is also consumed in making lace curtains. 

Products can always be consigned to commission men, 
and drafts of 75 to 90 per cent, of the value made against 
them. But this custom almost always results unsatisfac- 
tory to the mill. 



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SAKE OF PRODUCTS. 129 

The dry goods commission business has been a very 
prosperous one where well managed. Some of the 
important commission houses of New York have become 
rich enough to become the controlling factors in some of 
the largest banks there. Thus situated, they would 
rather advance money on consigned goods than not. In 
doing this, their banking interests are served, as well as 
their own business of selling goods on commission. In 
the transaction there may be a profit in borrowing money 
at 3 per cent from the bank, and charging the manufac- 
turer at the rate of 6 per cent. 

Some mills open an office in New York and sell direct. 
Some employ salaried men to sell goods direct to job- 
bers in certain territory or all over the country. 

Most of the goods manufactured in the South are 
handled through commission houses and these have been 
of great advantage to many mills indeed to most of 
them. It requires constant care, however, and not infre- 
quently a change of agents to get full prices and prompt 
sales. The mill man ought to make periodic visits to 
New York and look over the markets for himself to 
check up his accounts and the situation with his agents. 

Commission houses rarely expose to the mills the 
names of the customers, except when there is a complaint, 
a reclamation or a cancellation of an order. In such cases, 
the commission houses generally claim that the mill should 
accept the cancellation, or allow the claim if it has to be 
made. Some commission houses claim that they often 
pay reclamations rather than raise questions with the 
mills they represent. 

Commission houses are generally very accommodating 
about advancing money to mills on goods. Indeed many 
of them are altogether too accommodating about holding 
goods and advancing money on them. Many a mill has 
been broken by the accumulation of goods in the hands 
of commission houses with advances made upon them, 
till the interest account, and the hampered conditions 
would absorb the best of the mill's assets. 

It is common for mills, especially in the South, to allow 



130 SALE OF PRODUCTS. 

freight ciiarges from the mill to the general market in 
which the goods are sold. This is sometimes extended 
to require freight allowances on goods to destination, 
wherever sold in this country. 

A good commission house is a very excellent institu- 
tion, and these are great helps to the mills. They not 
only dispose of the mills products, but help in such finan- 
ceering as the mill needs, and in many ways are advanta- 
geous to the mill. 

There are many abuses in the commission business, how- 
ever, which ought to be eliminated. 

Sometimes a commission house will get the lowest pos- 
sible limit of price from a mill, and then buy the goods 
and resell them at a higher price. 

Sometimes option prices will be obtained from a distant 
mill; if goods go up, the order is sent in at the option 
price, and sold at a higher price. 

Countermands to please customers are too often 
allowed by commission houses. 

Most of the commission houses are free from flagrant 
abuses, such as above cited, but the few who are guilty 
make trouble for both the mills and the square dealing 
houses. 

Great care should be exercised in the selection of a com- 
mission house, and having found a good one, it is well to 
stay with it. But equally great care should be exercised 
not to stay with a doubtful commission house too long. 

No rule can be given as to selection of a commission 
house. Nothing but business judgment can be of value 
in appointing an agent, or in changing them. 

When a mill deals for a long time with one commission 
house, the kind of goods that a mill can make, gradually 
becomes well known, without any special system of infor- 
mation. But each mill should have a system of keeping 
all interested parties fully informed about the kind of 
goods that it is possible for it to make without expen- 
sive changes in equipment. This would save considera- 
ble correspondence and would put a commission house or 
other customers of the mill in a position to telegraph 



SALE OF PRODUCTS. 



131 



orders or inquiries with a certainty that the goods can be 
easily made. For this purpose, the following forms are 
submitted as models for printing on postal or other 
cards, to send to customers or other interested parties. 
These cards are shown as filled out with imaginary data 
from a cloth mill and a yarn mill. 

Form T. CLOTH CARD. 

We are equipped with looms and supplies for the man- 
ufacture of the following kinds of cloth: Warp Threads 
per inch: 44, 48. 52, 56, 60, 64, 

Filling Threads per inch: 44, 46, 48, 50, 52, 54. 56, 

58, 60 

Width of Cloth: up to 40 inches 

Harness: No goods can be made with more 

than 4 harness 

Colors: Nothing but undyed goods 

heights of Goods: .... Any weight containing yarn 
ranging from number 18 to number 28 

Looms now running on 64x44, 28 inch 5 yd. 

cloth 



132 SALE OF PRODUCTS. 

Form V. YARN CARD. 

We are equipped with machinery and supplies for the 
prompt production of the following yarns: .... single or 
two to four ply yarn numbers i6 to 28. 

Put up .... in chain warps, up to 2250 ends, any 
length, ball warps and skeins. 

Colors. . . . No dyeing 

Mill is now running on mostly 2 ply 26 

The cost of selling goods in the United States is high 
as compared with England and Continental Europe. 

In England, cotton mill products are sold on commer- 
cial exchanges. In Manchester, there is a large exchange 
building. The manufacturers and brokers meet in this 
building each day, but more especially on Tuesdays and 
Fridays. Here, sales are made through brokers at i^ per 
cent, commission without any discounts, freight allow- 
ances or other extra charges. 

An attempt was made to have such an arrangement m 
Philadelphia. The Philadelphia Bourse was built for the 
purpose of serving as an exchange of commercial products. 
The plan is a very good one and it is hoped it will become 
popular and be generally used. 



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CHAPTER XII. 

textile lebucation. 

It seems almost incredible that until within a few years, 
there should have been in the United States no school or 
other means of instruction in the textile arts. This state- 
ment is especially emphasized in view of the two facts, viz: 
(i) That this country is and has been the chiefest one of 
the world in the production of cotton, one of the most 
extensively used of all textile fabrics; and (2) that in the 
cotton producing regions of the United States, there is 
now a scarcity of suitable occupation for a large class of 
people who, with knowledge and skill, could find profita- 
ble employment in cotton manufacture. 

In other fields of development, the United States have 
not been behind hand in providing schools for the devel- 
opment of the necessary knowledge and skill relating to 
special features of industrial development. As early as 
1820, a special school was founded at Troy, New York, by 
one of the Van Rensselaers, to interest and train boys in 
civil engineering. This school has had a vast influence 
in the development of the American railway system. It 
w^as also the most important factor in the development of 
bridge construction in this country. In both these fields 
this country has for a long time led the rest of the world. 
While continental railway systems have developed along 
lines laid down in England, the American system has 
ahvays been entirely original and is now surpassing all 
other systems in popularity the world over. The Ameri- 
can superiority exhibits itself, not alone in the character 
of its methods, but also in the extent of its development 
at hopie of more miles of railway than any other country, 
and perhaps greater than that of the rest of the world all 
together. 

As the demand for technical graduates in the railway 
service and in bridge construction increased, more schools 
were esLablished, until to-day the market is rather over- 
stocked with men who are fully equipped with all the 



134 TEXTILE EDUCATION. 

knowledge and skill to meet every possible demand for 
railway and bridge work. 

Some thirty years ago the subject of metallurgical edu- 
cation and training began to receive proper attention. 
Before that time, pig iron, wrought iron and steel were 
only made in this country under the protection of heavy 
import duties, ^^'hen the schools began to furnish men 
well educated and well trained, the tide began at once to 
turn, and to-day the conditions are so far reversed that 
we export both pig iron and steel. The only protection we 
need in metallurgical arts is the provision for shipping 
facilities to send iron and steel to foreign countries. 

The subject of special education has probably received 
fuller attention in Germany than in any other country. 
There has been developed there a system of chemical 
schools, textile schools, and other technical schools which 
have had a marked influence on the progress and commer- 
cial importance of the German Empire. By means of 
these schools and the creation and support of a fine mer- 
chant marine service, England has been brought to make 
several investigations into the causes which led to the 
supplanting of English goods in many foreign markets by 
other goods bearing the mark "]^Iade in Germany." In 
every case the English commissions sent out to investi- 
gate this subject have reported that the foundation of 
Germany's success lay in her system of special schools, in 
which men were educated and trained to embark in special 
lines of manufacture, equipped with the fullest knowledge 
and the best skill possible to obtain: that in the prepara- 
tion and use of dyestufTs, and in all the measurements and 
calculations relating to the production of fabrics of uni- 
form quality and color, and in systems of instruction and 
training, the Germans had made wonderful progress. 

After finding what progress was being made on the 
Continent, in the matter of Textile Education, the English 
took the subject in hand and in many English textile cen- 
tres vast sums have been spent in the establishment and 
maintenance of textile schools. ^Manchester has one of 
these, the cost of which has already exceeded a million 
dollars. The disposition of the ^Manchester people is to 



TEXTILE EDUCATION. 135 

spare no cost that will tend to make this school the finest 
possible. 

The tirst textile school of importance in this country 
was founded at Philadelphia some years ago. Its useful- 
ness is now rapidly growing, and there is every promise 
that it will be brought to the perfection of some of the 
European schools at an early day. It is a very excellent 
school already. Schools have also been established at 
other places in this country as follows: Lowell, Mass., 
Clemson, South Carolina; New Bedford, Mass.; Atlanta, 
Ga.; Raleigh, N. C. 

A technical education should consist of three parts: 

1. A good general education. 

2. Special study of the special subject. 

3. Special training in the special subject. 

The manufacture of cotton is, in many senses, an art, 
just as music is an art. Using the musician's art for com- 
parison, it will be found that a good musician is made as 
follows: 

1. He first gets a good general education. 

2. He gains knowledge by special and hard study of the 
musical science. 

3. He gains skill by long and arduous practice. 

So in the textile art, the plan of preparation should be: 

1. Get a good general education. 

2. Do special and hard study in the principles involved 
in making cloth. 

3. Continue in long and arduous practice with textile 
machinery. 

A technical graduate is no more fit to take charge of a 
cotton mill or any of its departments, without having had 
a long term of practical work as an apprentice, than a 
musical student would be fit to attempt to give a concert, 
after a full study of the science of music, not having had 
any practice. A person's value in any art is in proportion 
to the results he can produce. Take the musical art again 
for comparison. Two musicians, one of whom had studied 
music much, but has had no practice, while the other hav- 
ing ne\er studied but having practiced much and learned 



136 TEXTILE EDUCATION. 

to play v/ell by ear are in point. The latter would be the 
better one of the two to entertain a company with some 
examples of his art. However much more the technical 
student knew about the theory of music, his inability to 
play at all makes him useless for the practical display of 
his art. On the other hand, take a third person who had 
studied much and had also practiced much. Such a per- 
son would certainly lead either of the others, being the 
only one of the three with a rounded musical education. 

As in music, so in the manufacture of cotton, the prac- 
tical man without any special education has a good meas- 
ure of value. The technical man without any practice is 
almost useless. The man who has both education and 
skill is destined to be the master. The youth who intends 
to go into textile pursuits should have a course of study 
and training in which a full and rounded education would 
be obtained. Below will be found the skeleton of two 
such courses; one intended for the youth who can spare 
less time and money in getting education, the other for 
the youtli who can spare more time and money. 

As some knowledge and skill in the machine business is 
one of the requisites in any kind of manufacturing, there- 
fore, some special time devoted to that work is incorpor- 
ated into both courses. Even if this is carried no further 
than to learn to run, with decent skill, a lathe, drill press, 
and planer, such training will be of great service. Manu- 
facturing in these modern times is almost entirely a mat- 
ter of work done by machines. The master of an industry 
must be fully competent in two directions, viz: (i) he 
must be able to understand the machines which do the 
different manufacturing operations and have the neces- 
sary skill to keep them in order and properly adjusted, or 
to direct the doing of these things; (2) he must know his 
raw materials and their characteristics, and understand the 
process of manufacture. On the basis of these ideas, the 
courses cf study hereafter suggested have been formu- 
lated: 



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TEXTILE EDUCATION. 137 

SHORT COURSE. 

Up to 15 years of age. 

General education in any of the ordinary schools in 
all parts of the country. 

15 to r6 years of age: 

Apprentice in a machine shop to acquire knowl- 
edge and practice in that business. 

16 to 1 3 years of age: 

In a textile school to extend his general knowledge 
and to study textiles specially. 
18 to 19 years of age: 

Apprentice in a cotton mill to become familiar with 
and to acquire skill in the process, and also a 
knowledge of special machinery used there. 

LONG OR FULL COURSE. 

Up to 10 years of age, get a general education. 

16 to 17 years of age, work in a machine shop. 

17 to 21 years of age, study at a college and textile school. 
21 to 22 years of age, go in the mill as an apprentice for 

practice in the business. 

At the end of each of these courses, the future of the 
young man will depend upon his own talents, energies, and 
judgment. 

The education of the Southern cotton planter's son 
before the abolition of slavery was g wonderfully good one 
for qualifying him to conduct a plantation. He grew up 
on the plantation, he absorbed many of the very best 
features of a special education, relating to cotton plant- 
ing. By contact he acquired an intimate knowledge of 
the labor, the mules, the horses and the other live stock. 
He gained a knowdedge of the minute details of every 
phase of cotton planting, and of its gathering and prepa- 
ration for market. He added to these a few years course 
in college, and as a perfectly fresh graduate, he was ena- 
bled to take charge of the plantation and to conduct it 
with practical success. The strengthening value of this 
kind of education, combining practical training as well as 
college training was exhibited in the success of the South- 



138 TEXTILE EDUCATION. 

ern statesmen in sustaining the dying institution of slavery 
for an unusually long time, in the face of the adverse 
influence of civilization. The same combination of study 
and practice, applied now to the manufacture of cotton in 
harmony with the course of civilization, would undoubt- 
edly produce wonderful results. 

Two and three generations ago the people of this coun- 
try possessed a valuable inherited training in the produc- 
tion of fabrics. The grandmothers of most of us could 
spin and weave, and many of them could make fine goods. 
Perhaps ^he finest fabrics yet made are those made in the 
East, where the yarn is spun by hand on a simple wheel 
and the cloth woven on a loom that would hardly be 
regarded in this country as a machine at all. Some Eas- 
tern shawls, it is said, are made so fine that one of them 
12 feet square may be drawn through a finger ring. 

Reflecting upon the simplicity of those Eastern people, 
it becomes apparent that they have preserved a knowl- 
edge and kept themselves in a training that our people in 
this western hemisphere have largely lost because of 
dependence on machinery. But we have about reached 
the limit of what machines can be made to do, without 
more intelligent attendance. With an increasing under- 
standing, however, of the principles of spinning and weav- 
ing, the limits of what machines may be m.ade to do is 
well nigh infinite. 

In the early days of the development of manufactures 
in the United States, the processes in the various indus- 
tries were, as a rule, simple, and the practical man without 
education was the ruling factor. In this period every- 
body boasted of being ''self made." Nothing was so cred- 
itable as to have begun life on the tow-path of a canal. 

This proved to our ancestors that a man was practical, 
and gave him a value for usefulness over the man who had 
only such a general education as was common to educa- 
ted people of that time. 

But as the manufacturing interests developed, plants 
and operations became more complicated. Increasing 
complications began to demand knowledge, as well as 






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TEXTILE EDUCATION. IS* 

skill. Then there came a period in which the technical 
graduate, without practical training, and the practical 
man without education, each handicapped about equally, 
controverted as to each other's merits, while each was 
doing his part towards keeping our manufacturing inter- 
ests going forward. 

But now all this is changed. The man having both edu- 
cation and training has supplanted all others. The author 
well remembers, in the Bessemer steel business, a so-called 
practical man used to make the mixture of pig iron to 
make steel. He would break a "pig" from this pile of 
iron, another from that, and another and another. He 
would look at them all wisely and say: "]\Iake a mixture, 
half out of this pile, one quarter out of that, and one quar- 
ter out of that," designating the piles. Sometimes these 
mixtures would make fair steel, sometimes very poor steel 
and sometimes the resulting metal could not be used at 
all. 

After ^.while the company fitted up a laboratory and 
hired a chemist. Great was the contempt of the practical 
men. And it might be admitted that, in those early days, 
the chemist seemed to make about as many mistakes as 
the old fashioned mixer made. It was about like a fight 
between the old volunteer fire department with the hand 
engine and the department with the steam fire engine. 
The sympathies and sentiments of many were all with the 
old order of things. But the new order was bound to 
come. 

Nowadays every steel plant has a specially equipped 
laboratory, physical and chemical, operated by men who 
have been through the college and through the mill. 
These men can make soft steel or hard steel; in fact, a 
hundred different kinds of steel, as they may will. The 
output has increased, cost has decreased, and machinery 
has been so improved that the iron and steel industry, 
formerly requiring heavy protective duties, is now fight- 
ing for new trade in the open markets of the world. And 
it comes to pass also that we have about lost sight of the 
"self made" man, as well as of the awkward technical grad- 
uate. 



140 TEXTILE EDUCATION. 

A proper system of textile education will bring the man- 
ufacture of cotton to the same advantageous condition in 
this country as has been reached in the manufacture of 
steel. It would be well for all the pubHc schools in the 
spinning and weaving districts to have an equipment of 
hand appliances, spinning wheels, looms, etc., and give 
some elementary instructions in the first principles of 
spinning- and weaving. This would have a tendency to 
develop natural tastes and show to the pupils themselves 
who amongst them had and who had not any natural tal- 
ents for the further prosecution of study and practice in 
the textile arts. 

While a conviction has been growing among the people 
that a technical education is valuable, yet there have been 
many disappointments as to results. This disappoint- 
ment comes from two causes. Many young men still think 
that a college course is the whole of a technical education. 
This is a great mistake. A long term of practice is equally 
important. Others go to a college and take a course rela- 
ting to one subject and then get employment in another 
line of work. Metallurgical course of study cannot pos- 
sibly fit a man for the direction of textile manufacture. 

The division of various departments of manufacturing 
are becoming more and more defined, and each now 
requires a special education in itself. 

In the cotton producing States especially, this subject 
of textile education is one of most vital importance. It 
will make' the difference between affluence and poverty. 
In the production of cotton, the competition is becoming 
very sharp. The margin for cutting the cost to keep 
ahead of India and Egypt has become exceedingly small. 
The certainty of continuing in control of the production 
of cotton by the United States lies in increasing our 
knowledge and skill in manufacture, and by this means 
increasing the quality and quantity of our manufactured 
cotton goods. 

Textile schools should receive and teach young women 
as well as young men. It should be kept in mind that, in 
former times, women did well nigh all the spinning and 



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TEXTILE EDUCATION. 141 

weaving. In the cotton mills of the present day, probably 
more than than half the operatives are women and girls. 
In all departments of textile manufactures women have 
shown about as much skill and capacity as men. In 
making the finer goods there would come much occupa- 
tion that would be suitable for women of education and 
refinement. For example, the designing of fancy pat- 
terns, such as appear in lace curtains and in the finer qual- 
ities of dress goods requires not only education and talent, 
but artistic tastes as well. There are many other channels 
in which the services of the better educated young men 
and women could be employed with dignity and profit to 
themselves and to manufacturers, if their education could 
be so directed as to incorporate a practical knowledge and 
skill in the textile art in its higher branches. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

IRoat) Built)ing anD BroaO ^iree. 

The developments of manufactures makes at once a 
population that becomes consumers of food stuffs and 
other country produce. This of course very much in- 
creases the uses made of public roads, and emphasizes the 
necessity of good roads. The improvement of roads is 
made more feasible and easy, because of increased taxes 
paid by the manufacturers and their operatives, much of 
which can be expended upon roads. Wherever manufac- 
tures are started, the question of good roads commences 
to receive fuller attention than ever before. Therefore, 
it seems proper to give a chapter on the subject of road 
building. 

The question of good roads is not one of construction 
alone, but of development and maintenance as well. The 
first settlers of the various American States were unable 
to spend much money or labor on road-making, but had to 
be content with clearing away the forest from a strip of 
ground twenty or thirty feet wide, which they called a 
road. In sparsely-settled counties in some States to-day 
this simple method of opening a way through a forest, at 
a cost of from $20 to $100 per mile, may be a heavier bur- 
den upon the community than the construction of a line of 
railway in some other section at a cost of $20,000 per mile. 
Between these limits of expenditure discretion must be 
exercised as to the best kind of road that the amount and 
character of trafific will warrant. 

Since most inhabitable places have become supplied with 
roads of some sort, questions of original construction will 
not arise as often as plans for improvement. Assuming 
that a given community has reached that condition of 
developnjent where its traffic has become important in vol- 
ume and value, while its roads have been growing impas- 
sable through bad usage — for this is generally the condi- 
tion of things that excites interest in the road question — 
what is to be done? The question is too broad to permit 






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ROAD BUILDING AND BROAD TIRES. 143 

any answer that will be generally applicable, so various are 
the conditions of topography, the materials available, the 
amount of road funds, the state of the roads to be 
improved and the character of the traffic. 

Combination of Road and Vehicle. 

It is important at the outset to reahze that the highway 
alone does not afford a means of transportation, but the 
road and the vehicles combined constitute transportation 
facilities. Hence, in the construction of either a road or 
a vehicle, regard should be had for the effect of the one 
upon the other; neither should be made in such a way as 
to destroy the other. The sole of the human foot is broad 
enough to pack the soil into a hard, smooth surface, so 
that use, instead of destroying a foot-path, usually 
improves it. The old Indian trails, developed by this 
means alone, were, for the Indian, far better highways than 
the average modern roads for the people who travel upon 
them. !\lost of our roads have been cut up by narrow- 
tired wheels, which soon produce ruts, the bottoms of 
which are the most compact part of the road. In such ruts 
the wide tire wedges in between the sides, making the 
broad-lired wheel pull heavy. The narrow-tire, on the 
other hand, cuts most easily through the soft mud to the 
bottom, not wedging on the sides, and therefore pulls 
lightest. Consequently the mistaken conviction prevails 
in places that the narrow tire is the better one, though its 
easy pulhng applies only on roads which have been cut up 
by the vehicle itself. But if broad tires had always been 
used, the point of contact of the vehicle with the road cov- 
ering enough surface to make the vehicle pack the track 
it passed over, the result of usage might have been the 
consta^it improvement of the road. There are, of course, 
soils too soft to support tires of any practicable width, 
making necessary artificial road-beds. 

Mecklenburg County Roads. 

For the reason that the County of Mecklenburg in 
North Carolina, has, for some time, been engaged in solv- 
ing the good roads 'problem, it may be of interest to 
recount brieflv the historv of her road buildins:. 



144 ROAD BUILDING AND BROAD TIRES. 

About 1 8 years ago, the mayor of the city of Charlotte, 
N. C, the late Col. WilHam Johnston, inaugurated a 
* movement to have the streets, which up to. that time had 
been clay roads, macadamized. The plan adopted was 
to have stone broken by hand and laid on the streets to a 
depth of six or eight inches, after making an equivalent 
excavation. With an expenditure of $25,000 about five 
miles of streets were put in fair condition. The work has 
been continued under successive administrations, with a 
continual improvement in methods, and the city now owns 
a well-equipped rock-crushing plant, the crushing of rock 
by hand having been abandoned. 

As street-building in Charlotte progressed, the author- 
ities of Mecklenburg county took up the problem of 
improving the highways outside of the city. The first 
important step was to secure from the State Legislature 
authority to levy a road tax of from 7 to 20 cents on each 
$100 worth of taxable property. 

The next step in the history of the good roads move- 
ment here was to secure the passage, through the Legis- 
lature of the State, of a law authorizing the county com- 
missioners to take charge of all convicts sentenced by 
the city and county courts, the punishment for many 
offenses being a fine or so many days' work on the public 
roads. It is thought that this is the best possible disposi- 
tion that can be made of the convicts, as they are not then 
brought into direct competition with honest, free labor, 
while their work inures to the direct benefit of the public. 

The Legislature of 1897 placed the road construction by 
convicts in the county, outside the city of Charlotte, in the 
hands of a commission created for that special purpose, 
known as the Mecklenburg "Road and Convict Commis- 
sion." This commission consists of three persons, who 
have complete charge of the convict camps and the road 
building carried on by the county. The work of the com- 
mission does not interfere in any way with the work each 
township may be doing, the act creating the commission 
having only given it the same powers and duties as the 
county commissioners possessed under the original system. 

The Legislature of 1899 abolished the Road Commis- 



ROAD BUILDING AND BROAD TIRES. 145 

sion, and put the road construction by the county again 
in charge of the County Commissioners. 

To summarize all that the county is now doing in the 
way of building, reconstructing and repairing streets and 
roads, it will be found convenient to classify the work into 
three departments. 

1. In the city of Charlotte, under the direction of the 
city council, the mayor, city engineer, and supervisor of 
the streets. The work is paid for out of the city treasury. 

2. In the county at large, under the direction of the 
county commissioners, the county engineer, and the super- 
intendent of the convict camp. All the proceeds of the 
county road-tax are disbursed by this board in reconstruc- 
ting roads. 

3. In each township, through its board of trustees, are 
expended for local work in road-repairing, the proceeds of 
the road-tax raised within the township. 

The cost of a road outfit is about $5,000, and consists of 
a steam roller, crusher, bins, portable engine, road 
machine, and a screen made of boiler plate perforated to 
separate the crushed stones into three sizes. The city of 
Charlotte owns a road outfit, Charlotte township owns 
one, and the County Commissioners own two. 

The stone is broken or crushed and separated by the 
screen into three sizes, the largest being about i^ inches 
square. In practice, the coarser stone is laid on the bot- 
tom to depth of four inches; the second size is laid next, 
three inches thick, and the fine stuff is used for a top dress- 
ing of about two inches. Each of the three layers is rolled 
as laid. 

OriginLlly the county roads were constructed by round- 
ing up the road bed, cutting drain ditches on either side, 
excavating the centre to a width of twelve feet — nine 
inches in depth, and then filling in the excavated portion 
with stone broken by hand on the road-bed. The system 
has now been developed until not only is the stone broken 
by steam power, but the roads are often re-located and 



146 



ROAD BUILDING AND BROAD TIRES. 




Road with Macadam in Centre. 



graded, becoming practically new roads. The above 
engraving shows a cross section of a road bed, as originally 
constructed. 

Experience, however, taught the road authorities that, 
when the roads were dry, the clay-bed was preferred by all 
drivers, and the location of the macadam in the middle of 
the road, left either side too narrow for vehicles. Hence, in 
attempting to use the clay bed, the wheels of one side of a 
vehicle were always in the drainage ditch, which ruined it. 
This experience led to the construction of the road bed, as 
shown in the next engraving, omitting the paved gutters 
except where absolutely necessary. On this road-bed, the 
macadam way can be used in the winter season, and the 
clay road in the summer. Besides the greater comfort of 
driving over the clay in summer, the macadam is protec- 
ted from the unnecessary wear and tear of summer traffic. 




Fig. 52. — Road with Macadam at One Side. 



The result of the work outlined here has been to lift 
Charlotte out of the mud, and to make it a city of very 
clean streets and attractive appearance. In the county it 
has greatly increased the accessibiHty of markets to the 
farmers, besides furnishing attractive drives for the people 
of both city and country. All this has been brought about 
within a few years, without any appreciable burdens upon 
the people, in a section where, from time immemorial, the 
road-beds might have been compared to the tempering- 
pits of a brickyard. 

But the advantages just enumerated do not tell the 



ROAD BUILDING AND BROAD TIRES. 147 

whole iitory. The stone used in macadamizing is mostly 
furnished by the farmers after they have finished cultiva- 
ting their crops. The price paid to them is 40 cents per 
cubic yard. The stone is delivered by them and stacked 
up at convenient points on the road. 

Convict Labor. 

Working convicts on the roads is regarded with great 
favor. The reports of the road authorities show that the 
cost of feeding, clothing, and guarding convicts amounts 
to something hke 25 cents per day for each convict. It 
has been found that, by buying provisions at wholesale, 
the convicts may be fed and guarded, while at work on the 
roads, at less cost than the county pays for their board 
with the county jailor. 

In nine months of recent road building, ninety convicts 
moved 36,247 cubic yards of earth on the roads per month, 
crushed and placed four and one-third miles of macadam, 
twelve feet wide, besides building and repairing live 
bridges. The total cost of this work, including salaries, 
machinery account, and material was $14,076.52. The 
convict camp is moved three or four times a year. In 
summer, canvass tents are used. In winter, the sides of 
the barracks are boarded up, leaving the cover of canvas. 
A camp is located about midway in a stretch of four miles 
of road to be built. Thus the greatest distance to and 
from work for the convicts is about two miles The aver- 
age distance is about one mile. At present, it is regarded 
as more economical to have 50 to 60 convicts in a camp, as 
that number is all that is needed to manage one road-mak- 
ing outfit. 

Cost of Road Building. 

The macadam roads that were built in Mecklenburg 15 
years ago cost between $2,700 and $4,000 per mile, accord- 
ing to the amount and kind of grading required. The 
roads now cost from $1,600 to $2,500 per mile, exclusive of 
bridges. 

For a 12 feet wide macadam road with 9 inches thick 
metal, the cost is about as follows. 



148 ROAD BUILDING AND BROAD TIRES. 

Cost of Stone quarried or purchased from farmers 

or others, i cubic yard 40 

Crushing- 20 

HauHng and Laying 20 

RolHng 10 

Ecavating Bed 10 

Total $1.00 

This I cubic yard will make a lineal yard of road, 12 feet 
wide and 9'' thick. Therefore the total cost of such a road 
well made, excepting only grading, would be per mile 
$1760.00. The grading might cost anything from one to 
two hundred dollars for ditching in a comparatively level 
country, up to sums ranging from 500 to 1,000 dollars per 
mile, in hilly or rolUng country. 

The average grading per mile in Mecklenburg county 
in a hilly country, at the foot of the mountains, would 
probably be about 500 dollars per mile. This average cost 
of gradirg would make the average mile of graded and 
macadamized road $2260.00. This is exclusive of bridges. 
For different widths and thicknesses the figures would 
run about as follows exclusive of grading and bridges: 



Thickness of Macadam. 


Per Mile. 

Cost. 

12 feet wide. 


Per Mile. 

Cost. 
9 feet wide. 


9 inches. 
8 inches. 
6 inches. 
4 inches. 


$1,760 
1,600 
1,250 
1,000 


$1,350 
1,200 



In New Jersey, considerable work is being done in build- 
ing roads 9 feet wide and 8" thick, also some 9 feet wide 
and 6" thick, and some experimental roads even as light 
as 4" thick, where the wagon traffic is Hght and the bicy- 
cle traffic large. 

Sand or good clay seems to make good foundations, 
provided the drainage is always good. With all vehicles 



ROAD BUILDING AND BROAD TIRES. 149 

provided with wide tires the 8" and 6" thick macadam 
seems to do as well as, or even better than the 12" with 
narrow tires. 

Cost of Roadmaking Outfit. 

The cost of a roadmaking outfit has already been 
referred to. The following table may be found interesting 
to those who are thinking of embarking in the business of 
building better roads, as it includes all the machinery and 
equipment necessary for beginning the work as now car- 
ried on in Mecklenburg county: 

I 20 H. P. Portable Boiler and Engine and i 
Stone Crusher — capacity per hour, 15 to 20 
tons — I Boiler Plate Screen and Elevator $2,000.00 

I Horse Roller, Stone 500.00 

10 Mules 1,250.00 

5 Wagons 250.00 

Tents 'ind Camp Equipments 500.00 

Blacksmith Outfit and other Small Tools and 

Harness 3,000.00 



$7,500.00 



In order to begin road building, however, it is not neces- 
sary to have a stone crushing plant. Much good macadam 
road has been made by cracking stone with hammers. 
Roads may be much improved without the expense of 
macadam. The important thing for any county is that a 
start should be made in road improvement by working a 
regular force all the time. This force may be convicts or 
free labor. If a beginning is once made, the people will be 
sure to mcrease the force, and to do more and more road 
building as time passes. 

Mecklenburg Road Tax. 

The present county road tax in Mecklenburg is 18 cents 
on $100 taxable property. This raises nearly $20,000 
each year. This fund is expended in Imilding macadam 
roads by working the convicts. In addition to this tax, 
each towiship levies a special road tax. usually 7 cents on 



150 ROAD BUILDING AND BROAD TIRES. 

$100 taxable property. But some of the townships levy 
more than this; notably Steel Creek, Berry hill, and Prov- 
idence, which levy 15 cents, and Paw Creek which levies 
12^ cents. All the road funds of the townships are 
expended under the direction of the township trustees in 
improving the roads within their several territories. 

In addition to the $20,000 road fund raised in 1898 by 
the 18 cents tax, the county commissioners of Mecklen- 
burg supplemented the fund about $13,000. This 
enabled them to spend nearly $34,000 in building 
macadam roads alone. 

Mecklenburg county now has more than 55 miles of 
macadam roads. Forty miles of this are in Charlotte 
township, and 15 miles on roads outside of Charlotte 
township. But all the roads leading from the city of 
Charlotte are being rapidly macadamized and improved. 

The making of good roads does not depend on the 
possession of any special material, such as the so-called 
granite of Mecklenburg county. In every locahty in the 
United States, there may be found good material of 
various kinds for making roads. The principal point is 
the proper separation and application of these materials. 

Good roads may be built of clay, limestone, gravel, 
shells, sandstone or any other stone available. The first 
requisite is drainage. This is usually by ditches on each 
side of the road; but a vast improvement is the addition 
of a drain under the centre of the road. This should be 
made of a porous tiling. The next requisite is assorting 
the material, the largest pieces being put at bottom, the 
smallest at top and being finally dressed with the fine par- 
ticles made in crushing. Each layer should be rolled 
with a heavy road roller. 

There are fifteen townships in Mecklenburg county. 
These townships build no macadam roads, but keep in 
repair those built by the county and also keep the dirt 
roads in repair. Only free labor is employed by the town- 
ships. 

In Mecklenburg county it is considered important to 
avoid small wooden bridges, and to use terra-cotta drains 



ROAD BUILDING AND BROAD TIRES. 151 

instead. It is also believed that a depth of five inches of 
macadam would give as good service as the nine inches 
now used, if broad-tired vehicles were insisted upon and 
the needed repairs were made upon the first appearance 
of a break. 

From experiments on various roads and grades, the 
U. S. Agricultural Department derives the following: 

TABLE SHOWINGPULLIN POUNDSREQUIRED 
TO MOVE A WAGON LOADED WITH ONE 
TON (2,000 LBS.) ON VARIOUS KINDS OF 
ROADS. 

Iron Rails 8 pounds 

Asphalt 26 

Macadam 38 

Best Gravel 51 

Cobble Stones 54 

Dry Clay 98 

Loose Sand 320 

TABLE SHOWING PULL PER TON ON VARIOUS 
GRADES OF MACADAM ROADS. 

Level 38 pounds 

I per cent, grade 42 

78 

93 

118 

138 

162 

10 " " .238 

One horse can without injury exert a pull of 100 pounds 
for ten hours a day, walking at the rate of 2^ miles an 
hour. Thus one horse can haul a ton up a 3 per cent, 
macadam grade with the same ease that he could haul it 
on a level clay road, and with the same ease that three 
horses could haul it in sand. 

The New York Highway Manual estimates the value of 
good roads at $1.25 per year per acre of surrounding land, 



2 




3 




4 




5 




6 









m2 ROAD BUILDING AND BROAD TIRES. 

and that this amount per acre would pay for all the roads 
in one year. 

The Public Roads of the United States. 

The Missouri Experiment Station has estimated that 
the public roads of the United States aggregate 1,500,000 
miles in length, and estimates the total wagon transporta- 
tion of the country at 500,000,000 tons yearly; that the 
average distance of the haul is nearly 8 miles, that the 
average cost of transportation is about $2 per ton for this 
eight miles, making the cost of wagon freight $1,000,- 
000,000 yearly. It is claimed that this freight could be 
transported the distance of eight miles over first-class 
roads at an average cost of 80 cents per ton, thus saving 
$600,000,000 in the cost of wagon transportation. This 
saving would be equal to one fourth the total value of all 
the farm products of the country in the year 1898. 

Road Repairs. 

The same authority says that the sum of $20,000,000 
is expended each year for the maintenance of our public 
roads outside the cities. This does not include the cost 
of permanent improvements. Thus at the end of the year, 
after the expenditure of $20,000,000, the roads of the 
country are no better than they were before this vast sum 
was expended. And the tax-payers may go on paying 
this enormous sum of $20,000,000 on their roads each year 
under the present system without securing improved 
roads! All improvements must come from expenditures 
above this amount, from changes in the methods of repair- 
ing the highways or from the more careful use of them 
after they are repaired. These facts at once show that 
the maintenance of our public highways is a serious prob- 
lem, involving the expenditure of large sums of money. 

The road trustees of Charlotte township find it neces- 
sary to expend $330 a mile every five years in repairing 
their roads. To be accurate, it takes 350 yards of stone 
costing 40 cents per yard or $140 per mile for the stone 
alone every five years. In addition to the above, there is 
the cost of spiking, distributing, rolling, crushing, har- 






O 

o 



W 



3 
orq 



O 
P 

CL. 




ROAD BUILDING AND BROAD TIRES. 153 

rowing and other labor, making the aggregate cost of 
repairs for one mile $330. 

Careful observation teaches them that, with the use of 
broad tires on their macadam roads, this heavy expense of 
repairing could be done away with in a large measure, as 
the roads would not need repairing oftener than once 
•every 15 years, thus saving two-thirds of the cost of repair 
now expended. 

In all suggestions for road improvements, much atten- 
tion has been paid to the advantages to be obtained from 
the use of broad tires instead of the narrow tires so gener- 
ally used. It is admitted by all who have studied and 
investigated the road problem that narrow tired wheels 
are most destructive to streets, macadam, gravel, dirt 
roads, fields, meadows, pastures, and farms. The intro- 
duction in recent years of the wide tired metallic wheel, 
at about the price usually paid for the ordinary narrow 
tired wheels, has removed one very serious objection to 
the proposed substitution of broad for narrow tires. 

Broad Tire Tests. 

The Agricultural College of Missouri has recently made 
numerous tests, which prove conclusively that the draft 
of wide-tired vehicles is less than those having narrow 
tires. Yet there remains in the minds of many intelligent 
farmers and teamsters a well defined conviction that the 
wide tire will draw very much heavier than the narrow 
tire over roads in what may be termed the average condi- 
tion. To remove all doubts on this point, and to secure 
reliable information relative to the question under discus- 
sion, the following tests were made. They were made 
with 1 1 inch and 6 inch tires on dirt, gravel and macadam 
roads, carefully comparing the draft of each vehicle under 
the conditions above specified. 

As it was proposed to have these trials cover an entire 
year in order to be certain that they embraced all condi- 
tions of road surface usually found, the work was begun 
early in January, 1896, and was continued without inter- 
ruption to September, 1897, a period of more than 20 
months. The tests were made with a Giddings self-recor- 



154 ROAD BUILDING AND BROAD TIRES. 

ding dynamometer, registering a maximum strain of 3,000 
pounds, reading to approximately five pounds. Prof. C. 
M. Conner and Mr. D. W. May, of the Missouri Experi- 
ment Station, conducted the tests. 

The vehicles used had tires as follows: "The narrow 
wheels were standard width, inch and a half tire, such as 
are made for the ordinary wagon. The wide tired 
wheels were metallic with six inch tires, cast to fit the 
spindles of the wagon with narrow tired wheels. Many 
of the trials were made with the same wagon, the wheels 
being changed. In all cases the same net load, 2,000 
pounds v.'as hauled. The wide tired wheels weighed 
nearly 250 pounds more than the narrow tired wheels 
but the net load of the two wagons was the same. Both 
sets of wheels were the same height. 

Care was taken each month to test the readings of the 
dynamometer with Fairbank's scales. The minimum, 
length of run was 200 feet and return, in many cases 
increased to 400 feet, sometimes to 600 feet. Care was 
also taken in each test, to have the speed of the teams 
uniform, about 2| miles per hour. 

TEST ON MACADAM STREET. 

Hard , smooth, nearly level, and comparatively free from 
dust, loose stone and sand. Length of runs 400 feet. 

Trial made August 29, 1896. Average draft- 
Narrow tire 99.4 pounds. 

Wide tire 73.4 " 

Difference in favor of broad tires 26.0 " 

Percentage difference 35-7 

Trial made September 12, 1896. Average draft. 

Narrow tire 143-5 pounds. 

Wide tires 123.4 

Difference in favor of broad tire 20.1 

Percentage difference 16.3 

Contrary to what was expected by many, the broad tire- 
pulled lighter on the hard, smooth surface of the macadam 



ROAD BUILDING AND BROAD) TIRES. 155 

road, there being an average difference of 26 per cent, in 
favor of the wide tire. 

TEST ON A DIRT ROAD. 

''Dry, hard, free from ruts and dust, nearly level. Trial 
made August 28, 1896. Length of run, 400 feet. 

Average draft. 

Narrow tires 137-3 pounds 

Broad tires 104.8 " 

Difference in favor of broad tires 32.5 " 

Percentage difference in favor of broad tires 31.0 " 

TEST ON CLAY ROAD. 

Mud deep, stiff, and beginning to dry on the surface. 
At one end of the run was soft mud, on which water was 
standing. The narrow tire made a rut 7 inches deep. 
Length of run 400 feet. Trial made March 19, 1897. 

Average draft. 

Narrow tires 825.3 pounds. 

Broad tires 551-9 " 

Difference in favor of broad tires 273.4 " 

Percentage difference 49.3 " 

Clay road. Muddy, slightly frozen on top, but not 
enough to bear the load on either set of wheels. Narrow 
tires made ruts 12 inches deep in places. Length of run 
400 feet. 

Average draft. 

Narrow tires 549-0 pounds. 

Broad tires 447-6 " 

Difference in favor of broad tires 101.4 " 

Percentage difference 22.0 " 

The Missouri experiments, covering a period of two 
years, discovered that there were only two conditions of 
the dirt roads in which there was any advantage in having 
narrow-tired vehicles, viz: when soft (either muddy or 
very dusty) on the surface and hard underneath; and when 



156 ROAD BUILDING AND BROAD TIRES. 

the run was deep and sticky so that both sets of wheels 
cut deep ruts and the mud adhered to the wheels. Say 
the Missouri authorities: "It is unquestionably true 
that when we consider the entire tonnage freighted over 
any ordinary dirt road during the year, the total amount 
of work required would be very much less, if the six inch 
tires were used instead of the narrow tires now in vogue." 
There is not much doubt but that in the matter of draft 
alone the Missouri tests show an average advantage in 
favor of the broad tires of something like 25 to 30 per 
cent. Add to this advantage of draft, the immense 
advantage in preserving the road beds that would ensue 
by the use of broad tires and the argument seems to be 
conclusive that the narrow tires should go. 

A very intelligent Mecklenburg county farmer suggests 
that broad tires and wheels of uniform size would lessen 
still further the draft of all loaded vehicles. In other words 
he contends that the draft of a vehicle whose hind wheels 
are the same diameter as the fore wheels will require less 
motive power under the unusual conditions. This ques- 
tion might be worth practical investigation. 

Combination of Road and Vetiicle. 

The question of transportation is not one of road con- 
struction alone. The road bed, the vehicle, and the 
motive power are all prime factors, entering into the prob- 
lem and bearing an intimate relation to each other. 

The road bed should not make undue demands upon the 
vehicles and the motive power, nor should the vehicles be 
so constructed as to be unduly destructive to the road 
bed. Civilized people always find a way to utilize all the 
factors of transportation to the best advantage. 

In new and undeveloped countries like Mexico the road 
bed is often a mountain path, and the vehicle and motive 
power a native. In more progressive communities, a con- 
dition is reached where common dirt roads, ordinary vehi- 
cles, and mules and horses are employed in transportation. 
The next step in road progress is where the wide tired 
vehicle and the macadam road are used. Ultimately the 
more populous communities will reach the asphalt road 



ROAD BUILDING AND BROAD TIRES. 157 

bed and pneumatic tired automobile, whose motive power 
is either electricity or compressed air, as is now the case 
in some parts of New" York city. In the latter case, the 
perfection of road building is reached, and when the 
asphalt road bed. the pneumatic tire, and the motive 
power now^ used under such conditions are all perfected, 
the cost of transportation will be reduced to the minimum. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

nDi6C€llaneou0, 

Insurance and Fire Protection. 

Cotton mill insurance is now practically all written 
either by "The New England Factory jMutuals," or by 
"The Factory Insurance Association." The former is a 
combination of purely mutual insurance companies, 
formed among the mill owners of New England, and orig- 
inally designed to insure only the cotton mills in that dis- 
trict, which were members of the insurance companies. 

The business was afterward extended to such outside 
mills as would agree to build and equip in a certain pre- 
scribed manner. There are two Conferences of these 
companies, known as the "Senior Conference," composed 
of the older companies, and operating principally in New 
England, and to a smaller extent in the South; and the 
"Junior Conference," operating in the South and West, 
and to a smaller extent in New England. 

The mutual companies charge a rate of 75 hundredths 
of one per cent., and at the end of the year declare divi- 
dends to the policy holders, which reduce the actual cost 
of insurance in New England to 10 or 25 hundredths of 
one per cent., and in the South 15 to 35 hundredths. The 
amounts vary according to losses sustained by the com- 
panies composing the conference. 

Each of the conferences is composed of about ten mu- 
tual companies. Two or three of the mutual companies 
belong to both conferences. 

The Factory Insurance Association, is a combination of 
strong stock companies, with large capital and the high- 
est credit and standing. It has one general office and one 
general manager. The principal business is with cotton 
mills. The properties insured by them must be equipped 
and protected under about the same general rules as the 
mutual companies. They charge a uniform "flat" rate of 
about 20 hundredths of one per cent. Thus, the cost of 
insurance may happen to be greater in some cases in the 



INSURANCE AND FIRE PROTECTION. 153 

mutuals than in the stock companies, or it may happen to 
be less. 

It is frequently the case that mills which are members 
of the mutual companies carry insurance in the stock 
companies. This is sometimes caused by dissatisfaction 
with the management of the mutuals. The mills them- 
selves are represented on the boards of directors of the 
mutual companies, and are supposed to manage their 
affairs; yet a small coterie of men usually run things. This 
is especially true in the South and West. 

Both of the existing organizations for insurance are 
excellent institutions, and both should be patronized 
and encouraged, so that the business may be handled 
economically and profitably, to both the insurance com- 
panies and the cotton mills. 

It W'Ould seem that factory insurance might be properly 
handled by one large mutual insurance company in each 
section composed of one or two States, for the handling 
of the business in its own section. 

In whatever way the insurance is handled, it is neces- 
sary to have some fixed rules and regulations about the 
equipment of mills. It is also necessary to have inspec- 
tors constantly on the road, to keep the mills reminded of 
their duty to themselves and to the insurance companies. 

In general terms, the regulations comprise about the 
following ideas: 

(i.) A full equipment of automatic sprinklers, prop- 
erly installed and supplied with water. 

(2.) An outside system of protection by hydrants- and 
hose, supplied by a special fire pump. 

(3.) Two distinct sources of water supply. These 
may consist of a fire pump with capacious reservoir, and 
an elevated tank; or a city water supply in connection 
with either a fire pump or an elevated tank. 

(4.) Building to be of approved "slow burning" or 
"mill" construction. 

(5.) Steam (in a steam mill) to be maintained at all 
times, night, day, and Sunday, at not less than 50 pounds 
pressure. 

(6.) A watchman with approved time detector clock, 



160 INSURANCE AND FIRE PROTECTION. 

at night and at all times when mill is not running. 

(7.) A fire organization of mill operatives, who turn 
out at regular interv^als and practice with the apparatus. 

(8.) Sundry other minor requirements. 

Low insurance rates are promoted by perfected systems 
of fire protection. The system developed by the mutual 
insurance companies is outlined below: 

Pump. 

A fire pump specially designed by them for the purpose. 
It must have a capacity of 500 to 1,500 gallons of water 
per minute, the size dependent upon the area to be pro- 
tected. In a mill run by steam power, the fire pump is 
an independent steam pump, supplied from a boiler in 
which steam is kept up to at least 50 pounds at all times, 
night, day, and Sunday. In a mill run by water power, 
the fire pump is a rotary pump operated by friction gear- 
ing from the main water wheel shaft, or, in some cases, 
from a special water wheel installed for the purpose. 

Reservoir. 

The pump takes the suction from a reservoir holding 
from 50,000 to 100,000 gallons. It is usually dug in the 
ground (40 to 60 feet in diameter) and lined with brick 
and cement. In the case of a water mill, the suction is 
usually connected with the head race or feeder tube 
which supplies the water wheels. 

Hydrants. 

The pump discharges into an underground system of 
pipes which supply hydrants properly distributed around 
the plant. These hydrants are similar to the ones in use 
on the streets of cities. They have two or three connec- 
tions for 2^ inch hose. Each hydrant is enclosed in a "hose 
house," which is six or eight feet square, built to contain 
100 to 300 feet of hose, together with axes, crow bars 
and other appliances for fighting fire. 

Sprinkler System. 

There is an elevated tank, the bottom of which is not 
less than 15 feet higher than the highest part of the roof, 
and of not less than 10,000 gallons capacity, always filled 



INSURANCE AND FIRE PROTECTION. 161 

with water, to supply a system of pipes in the buildings for 
the automatic sprinklers. These sprinklers are construct- 
ed with fusible metal connection, so that at a given tem- 
perature (usually 155 degrees F.) they will open and dis- 
charge a large spray of w'ater, reaching throughout a 
circle of about 6 feet radius. The pipes are so run that 
sprinklers are under all the floors and roofs, where there 
is any shafting, machinery or other occupancy. These 
should be not more than 8 to lo feet apart in every direc- 
tion. In addition to being supplied from the elevated 
tank, the sprinkler piping is also connected with the fire 
pump. 

Fire Brigades. 

If the elevated tank is always full, automatic sprinklers 
will fully protect a mill against an incipient fire inside the 
buidings. The pump and hydrant system is for fighting 
outside fires and inside fires, which might get beyond the 
control of sprinklers. This latter protection is of but lit- 
tle avail, unless there is an organization of men fully 
trained in the use of the apparatus. Every factor}^ should 
organize a fire brigade among the operatives, with certain 
fixed duties for each man. They should practice with the 
hose once a week and become so familiar with the work 
that in case of fire there will be no excitement. 

Fire Pails and Casks. 

There should be an abundant supply of fire pails, full of 
w'ater, and hanging on the columns. There should be 
one on every alternate column in the mill. The pails 
should be made for the purpose, and have round bottoms, 
so they cannot be used for other purposes. They are 
sometimes made of paper, but preferably of galvanized 
iron. They hang on special hooks made for the purpose. 
They should have painted on them "For Fire Only." 
They should be filled up once a week, to supply the loss 
by evaporation. 

In the picker room, there should be i double supply of 
fire pails, and also one or two casks filled with water. 



162 INSURANCE AND FIRE PROTECTION. 

Oily Waste Cans. 

There is a special metal can, made for holding oily 
waste. It stands on legs, and has a self closing lid. In 
this can should be thrown all waste which has been used, 
or is being used, for cleaning machinery. This reduces 
the risk of spontaneous combustion. 

Watchman's Clock. 

It is necessary to keep a watchman on duty at night, 
and at all times when the mill is not running. In order to 
keep record of this watchman's faithfulness, a clock is 
provided with a paper dial, which records the time when 
the watchman visits certain points. There are three 
kinds of watchman's clocks in common use: (i.) One 
with small magnetos at each station. The watchman 
turns a crank and generates a small current of electricity, 
which punches the clock dial in the office. This is the 
best form, and least liable to be tampered with. (2.) The 
next best form is one with press buttons at each station, 
connecting with a battery at the clock in the office. (3.) 
Another form is a small clock which the watchman car- 
ries with him. The dial is punched with keys made fast 
at the station. The key at each station is different from 
the others, and punches in its own circle on the dial. 

Mill Construction. 

The mutual insurance companies have developed a 
design for a standard cotton factory building, known as 
the "slow burning construction." They recognize the 
impossibility of making any factory building absolutely 
fireproof in its construction, and have designed a building, 
which would burn so slowly that the standard fire protec- 
tion apparatus on the premises could easily control it. 
The essential features of this design are brick walls, heavy 
timbers and thick floors. 

Cotton mills are made in widths which are multiples of 
25 feet, inside measure. That is, they are 75, 100. 125 
feet wide, inside to inside on first floor. 

The length of mills are multiples of the width of bay. 
If bays are 8 feet, the inside length is a multiple of 8. 



MILL CONSTRUCTION. 163 

Ring spinning mills are usually made with 8 feet bays. 
Mule mills are made with lo feet 8 inch, or ii feet bays, 
to accomodate the travel of a pair of mules. 

The cotton mill building usually consists of the follow- 
ing parts: 

(i.) The Main Mill. 

(2.) The Picker Room. This is a continuation of the 
main mill, but cut ofT from it by fire wall. 

(3.) The Belt or Rope Tower and Dust Flue. This 
is usually a space of two bays cut off by two walls between 
main mill and picker room. Part of this space is occu- 
pied by the belts or ropes from engine to the line shafts 
on each fioor. Part of it is cut off for a dust flue. Part 
may be utilized as a supply rooiii or cloak room, or stair 
tower, or elevator tower. 

(4.) (If a steam mill.) Engine and boiler rooms. 
These are usually built in the form of an L, one behind 
the other. These rooms should be amply large, not less 
than 40 feet square each, for installations up to 400 horse 
power. The space in front of the boilers should be as 
much as the whole length of the boilers and furnace. 

The thickness of mill walls should not be less than i^ 
brick (13 inches) on the top story, and ^ brick thicker for 
each story below. Thus, in a four story mill, the top 
story walls would be i^ brick thick, the third story 2 
brick, the second stor^^ 2^ brick, the first story 3 brick, 
while the foundations below should be 3^ brick or more, 
according to circumstances of topography, etc. 

Sometimes foundations of brick mills are made of 
stone. 

Sometimes mill walls are built thinner than the above 
dimensions, and have pilasters where the timbers rest. 
This gives a panel effect to the walls, and is somewhat 
ornamental. It is not recommended to build any walls 
less than 13 inches thick, especially those between main 
mill and picker room, and those between main mill and 
boiler room. These should be "fire walls." that is, they 
should extend above the roofs. 



164 



MILL CONSTRUCTION. 




Fig- 55.— Mill Floor. 

Fig. 55 is a general view of a mill floor, showing the 
heavy timbers, with the thick floor, the intermediate 
floor and the top floor. This engraving also shows the 
manner of running the sprinkler piping. 

It is an excellent plan to use uniform size timbers 
throughout construction, to the greatest extent possible, 
even to the extent of using timbers too heavy for the pur- 
pose in many cases. For example, floor timbers for first 
story might be required 12x16, 25 feet long for centre 
spans, and 12x16. 26 feet long for outer spans. Upper 
floors might require only 12x14, and the roof might 
require only 10x14. 25 feet long for centre spans, and 




Base, Pintle and Cap. 



MILL CONSTRUCTION. 165 

10x14, 28 feet long for outer spans. In such a case, all 
timbers ought to be ordered 12x16, 28 feet long. Thus 
any timber would answer for any position. The lumber 
would cost more, but the labor in handling the timber in 
search of certain pieces would be eliminated. 

In the same manner, the columns for first and second 
story might be 10x10, and for third 9x9, and for fourth 
8x8. But it is better practice to order them all 10x10 for 
a 4 story mill, or 8x8 for a 2 story mill Columns may be 
square or round. 

It is usual to provide each column with a "cap and 
pintle." These are castings, so arranged that each col- 
umn is supported directly on the column beneath it. 
Thus, the level of the floor is not affected by the shrink- 
age of the floor beams, as would be the case if the column 
stood on the wooden floor beam. Fig. 56 shows one 
form of casting for this purpose. It may be in one piece 
as shown, or may be in two or three pieces. 



SHIP LAPPCD 

SPLINCD 

Fig- 57 —Floor Plank. 

The heavy floor plank should be 3x8, dressed on one 
side and splined or ship lapped, as per Fig. 57. Roof 
planks should be the same. The heavy floor plank 
should be overlaid crosswise with kiln dried jointed floor- 
ing, about 1x6 or 1x4, and this again overlaid length- wise 
mill with another similar floor. The best practice is to 
put one thickness of asbestos or asphalt paper between 
the 3 inch and the i inch floor. This prevents sifting of 
dust and helps make the floor water-tight, as well as fire- 
tight. Sometimes this paper is omitted. Sometimes one 
of the I inch floors is omitted. 

The best roof is made of tarred paper and pitch and 
gravel. 4 or 5 ply. built in place. The "stuck felt" roofing, 
sold in rolls and tacked on, is not recommended. Soldered 
tin makes a good roof. A standing lock seam tin roof is 
not good on a roof as flat as mill roofs are usually made, 
namely, a slope of ^ inch to the foot, but is used with suc- 
cess on slopes of | inch to the foot, and more. 



166 



MILL CONSTRUCTION. 



There should be a monitor on the roof, running nearly 
the full length of the mill, to give light and ventilation. It 
should be about 25 feet wide and four to six feet high. 

A mill 75 feet wide should be not less than 14 feet be- 
tween floors. A mill 100 feet wide should be not less than 
16 feet between floors. 

Windows about 5 feet wide and 1 1 feet high, should be 
in ever}^ bay. They generally consist of two lower sash 
that slide, and one smaller upper sash that turns on 
pivots. They may also consist of 3 sash, uniform in size. 

The outside doors may be of any ordinary pattern. The 
doors leading from one room to another should conform 
to insurance regulations. These are, in part, that the 
door is to be made of two or three thicknesses of tongue 
and groove boards, nailed together diagonally, and at least 
2-| inches thick. The nails are to be clinched. The whole 
is to be covered with tin, nailed on in such a way that no 
nail head is exposed. The door is to be hung on special 
rollers and inclined track overhead, so arranged that the 
door will close itself when not held open. It is held open 
by a cord and fusible link, so that in case of fire, the link 
will melt and allow door to close, thus cutting off one di- 
vision of mill from another. 

Fig. 58, shows a good arrangement of wall, floor and 
fire door. The door sill is shown higher than the floors. 
This enables the floor in one room to be flooded with 
water, in case of fire, without wetting the floor of the next 
room. 




Fig. 58. — Opening in Fire Wall. 



MILL. CONSTRUCTION. 



167 



One of the principles of good mill construction is to 
make all floors water tight, so that in case of fire, water 
may be freely used, even to the extent of flooding a floor 
2 to 3 inches deep, without running through and damag- 
ing machinery and stock in the room below.This principle 
is often disregarded by making holes through the floor for 
belts and for various other purposes. Frequently a two 
inch hole will be bored in a floor for hanging hoisting 
tackle, when machinery is being installed. All such holes 
should be plugged up tight and the plug wedged up tight 
on the under side. Belt holes through the floor should be 
lined with an iron guard. It should extend below the 
floor one or two inches, to prevent fire from licking 
through, and should extend above the floor two or three 
inches to prevent water from running through. Fig 59 
shows a good form of iron belt guard. 




Fig- 59.— Belt Guard. 
Warehouse. 

The standard warehouse for cotton, or for goods, or for 
waste, is a simple, though wonderfully safe and effective 
building. It consists of a series of brick walls, parallel to 
one another and about 25 feet apart. The roof is con- 
structed by putting heavy beams across from wall to wall, 
about 8 feet apart, and covered with splined or ship lapped 
3 inch plank, in the same manner as the mill roof. The 
the brick walls run above the roof, thus cutting one com- 
partment entirely ofT from the other. 

The walls are 60 to 100 feet long. The open ends are 
closed by wooden walls, having large doors, through 
which the bales of cotton, or other stored material, are 
handled. The theory of this construction is to separate 



168 MILL CONSTRUCTION. 

the Stored materials into distinct lots, so that if a fire 
should occur in one compartment, it may be controlled 
within that compartment. The wooden walls are made 
so they may be easily torn down, for convenience in get- 
ting the goods out in case of fire. 

The standard cotton warehouse is intended to hold 
bales of cotton, standing on end. The bales should not 
be piled one over another. Insurance companies allow 
piling of cotton, but charge an additional rate. Some- 
times the house is made several stories high. 

The warehouse should be within easy reach of the mill 
hydrants, and should be equipped with automatic sprink- 
lers, installed on the "drj^ system." In this system, the 
pipes are kept filled with compressed air, supplied from a 
hand pump. In case of a fire the automatic sprinklers 
open by the melting of a fusible link; the air pressure is 
reduced; this operates a valve, which turns water into the 
system from the elevated tank on mill, and the water runs 
out of the sprinkler on the fire. The advantage of the 
dry system over the wet, is that the pipes, being filled with 
air instead of water, will never burst by freezing. The wet 
system is generally satisfactor}^ in the mill building, be- 
cause the building is kept heated. In cold climates, the 
dr\' system is preferred for the entire installation. A pres- 
sure gauge is connected with the air pipes, so that the at- 
tendant may see when it should be pumped up, to supply 
leaks. An electric alarm is generally provided, to indi- 
cate when the pressure is reduced by the opening of a 
sprinkler head. 

Lighting. 

The cotton mill was formerly lighted by gas or kero- 
sene lamps. But now the incandescent electric light has 
almost entirely superseded every other form. It is safer, 
brighter and generally cheaper than any other light. The 
dynamo may be driven from the main source of power; but 
in large mills, it is generally driven by a special engine or 
water wheel. This enables the light to be run when, for 
any reason, the other machinery is stopped. It also makes 



MILL. CONSTRUCTION. 169 

a facility for lighting the grounds and outside buildings at 
night, after the mill is shut down. 

In order to secure the maximum safety for an electric 
lighting system all of the work should be installed by ex- 
perienced electricians, working under recognized rules 
and regulations. These require, among other things, 
that all wires be well insulated, and supported on porce- 
lain, and at no point coming in contact with wood. 

Under average working conditions, the power required 
to drive the dynamo is about one horse power for each ten 
lamps. 

Heating. 

There are two systems of heating in common use. One 
is by means of steam pipes suspended overhead, taking 
live steam direct from the boilers, and draining back into 
the boilers. The other is by means of a system of steam 
coils, and a fan, which takes air from the outside and 
forces or draws it over the coils, and then into the mill 
through flues built in the walls. 

iPlumbing. 

Water closets are almost universally provided in cotton 
mills. They are generally located in small towers, built 
against the side of the mill. The subject of sanitation for 
mills has not had the attention it deserves. The closets 
are too small, and there is not enough air admitted. The 
plumbing has been of the cheapest kind, and has been cor- 
respondingly unsatisfactory. 

In contracting for a new mill, special attention should 
be demanded for this subject, and good sanitation should 
be insisted upon. 

The water supply for closets is obtained from an ele- 
vated tank, independent of the fire protection tank, 
though it is frequently located in the same tower. 

It is important in locating a factory to see that there is 
in the vicinity a stream of suitable size to carry away the 
•sewage, and not give offense to neighboring property 
"holders. If no stream is available for this purpose, a spe- 



170 MILL, CONSTRUCTION. 

cial plant may be erected at a small cost for purifying the 
sewage. 

Humidifying. 

It is found that spinning and weaving cotton progresses 
more satisfactorily in an atmosphere of a certain degree 
of humidity or moisture. The natural condition of the 
atmosphere, as to moisture, varies greatly in different 
countries, and, even in the same country at different sea- 
sons of the year. In addition to these natural variations 
of external atmosphere, the interior atmosphere of a mill 
undergoes change during the progress of the cotton 
through the mill, on account of absorption or evaporation 
of moisture by the cotton, according as it happens to be 
more dry or more moist than the interior atmosphere. 
These varying conditions render it important, especially 
in spinning fine numbers, to have some artificial means for 
moistening the interior atmosphere of a mill. There are 
several devices for this purpose on the market, many of 
which are useful, but none perfect. 

Some day, a mill may be constructed perfectly air tight, 
with double windows, and so arranged that the superin- 
endent may have entire control of the conditions of tem- 
perature and humidity inside the mill. The air would be 
purified and heated and moistened to a prescribed degree 
and then pumped into the mill in exactly the proper quan- 
tities, according to the number of operatives, and the 
amount of stock being worked. 

Size of Building — Power Required. 

The size of a cotton mill cannot be stated universally, 
as so many square feet of floor space for so many spindles. 
The kind of goods produced makes a difference. But for- 
the sake of giving a general idea of the subject, there is 
presented below a list of mills now in existence, with a 
memorandum of spindles and looms, the kind of goods 
made, the horse power used, and the size of the buildings. 

Mill A. 10,000 spindles, 5,000 twister spindles, making 
2-ply yarn, Nos. 24 to 50. Horse power, 350. Build- 



illLL CONSTRUCTION. 171 

ing. one story, 75x400, with boiler and engine room, 40X 
80. Floor space, 32,200 square feet. 

Horse power per 1,000 spindles, 35. 

Floor space per 1,000 spindles, 3,220. 

Mill B. 10,000 spindles, 300 looms making 4 yard 
brown sheetings. Horse power, 400. Building two story 
75x300, with boiler and engine room, 40x80. Floor space 
48,200 square feet. 

Horse power per 1,000 spindles, 40. 

Floor space per 1,000 spindles, 4,820. 

Mill C. 12,000 spindles, 300 looms, making 4 yard fine 
convertibles. Horse power, 400. Building four stories, 
75x170. Water power mill, no engine room. Floor 
space, 51,000 square feet. 

Horse power per 1,000 spindles, 33. 

Floor space per 1,000 spindles, 4,250. 

]\Iill D. 10,000 spindles, 300 looms, making 4.75 yard 
convertibles. Horse power, 350. Building three stories, 
100x235. Water power mill, wheel house, 30x100. Floor 
space, 73,500 square feet. 

Horse power per 1,000 spindles, 35. 

Floor space per 1,000 spindles, 7.350. 

Mill E. 5,000 spindles, making coned hosiery yarns, 
Nos. 26 to 36. Horse power, 160. Building one story, 
75x200. Engine and boiler room, 30x70. Floor space, 
17,100 square feet. 

Horse power per 1,000 spindles, 17^. 

Floor space per 1,000 spindles, 3,420. 

]\Iill F. 10,000 spindles, making 3 yard brown sheet- 
ings. Horse power, 400. Building, two story, 75x430. 
Engine and boiler room, 40x80. Floor space, 35,500 
square feet. 

Horse power per 1,000 spindles, 40. 

Floor space per 1,000 spindles, 3,550. 

From the above showing, it might be roughly stated 
that on average Southern work for spinning mills, the 



172 MILL. MANAGEMENT. 

horse power required per i,ooo spindles, is 15 to 25; and 
floor space per 1,000 spindles, is 3,000 to 4,000 square 
feet. For spinning and weaving mills, the horse power 
required per 1,000 spindles, is 35 to 45; and floor space per 
1,000 spindles, is 4,000 to 5,000 square feet. 

Profits. 

The tables in Chapter VI showing range of profits, are 
made up from exhibits as usually made in annual reports. 
This is exclusive of depreciation, or wear and tear. Even 
in cases where an item of depreciation is carried in the 
accounts, it is often simply a manner of bookkeeping, and 
not a sum set aside for replacing machinery. 

From the experience of the best mills that have been 
running in the South for 20 years and over, and which 
have always been kept well up to date, it would appear 
that about 15 per cent, is the average annual profit in clear 
money for the whole time. This has usually been dis- 
posed of by paying 10 per cent, dividends, and re-invest- 
ing 5 per cent, in extension of plant. In one large mill 
built over 20 years ago, the following is the comprehen- 
sive result as it now stands: 

Capital paid in, $800,000. 

Value of plant now, as extended with profits; $1,600,- 
000. 

The profits used in extension, is about equal to the 
original capital stock. This would be an average of five 
per cent., per annum, for 20 years, made and re-invested. 

Where large profits are reported, and large dividends 
paid, it is always a question whether the vitality of the 
mill is not suffering. There is a number of cases where 
mills have paid several large dividends at the start, but, 
on account of making no provision for depreciation, 
have finally collapsed. , 

Value of Personality in Management. 

The influence that the personal ability of the manager 
of a mill exerts on the profits of a business is difficult to 
estimate. The relative capabilities of different individuals 
vary, as much as their countenances. 



MILL MANAGEMENT. 173 

The stockholders usually select a board of directors, 
and these in turn, select the man who is to be the execu- 
tive head. It may be assumed that this process secures 
a man who, from all appearances, is or may be a good 
manager. Yet with the best care, it is difficult to select 
the best man. 

In the same mill, the value of personality in manage- 
ment might produce different results as follows: 

1. Average normal management and fair conditions, a 
profit of lo per cent. 

2. Inferior management and fair conditions, a loss of 
5 per cent. 

3. Superior management and fair conditions, a profit 
of 25 per cent. 

The above applies not only to general business manage- 
ment, but also to the superintendent and the physical 
management of a mill. 

A man may make a success in managing one mill 
where all the factors are favorable, and acquire a confi- 
dence in himself that would make him undertake the man- 
agement of a failing mill, where some vital condition was 
wrong. Here he might make a complete failure. This 
applies to superintendents as well as managers. 

The following examples are given to elucidate this 
point. 

Example i. A very successful and excellent manager 
of a colored goods mill was induced to undertake also the 
management of a medium weight yarn mill, which had not 
been a success. It was confidently expected that his well 
known ability would redeem the mill. But as a matter 
of fact it made little difference. The troubles in this case 
were that the market for the yarns made was not good, 
and the selling arrangements deficient. 

Example 2. A colored goods mill became involved. 
Its redemption was undertaken by management which 
had been up to that time uniformly successful in various 
lines. It so happened on account of fashion, the 
market for these colored goods became ver}'^ much de- 
pressed. In addition to this influence, dissention and 



174 MILL. MANAGEMENT. 

controversy in the board and among the stockholders, 
•combined to defeat the success of the mill at the moment 
when the market was changing in favor of that kind of 
goods. 

Example 3. A superintendent in charge of a spinning 
mill was very successful. He was induced to go to a mill 
500 miles away, where labor was higher priced, and the 
mill and machinery were old. In the new place, he did 
no better than his predecessors. 

Example 3. A spinning mill consigned its product to 
a commission house, entering it each month at current 
market prices. On a declining market it was not prompt- 
ly sold. When sold, it brought less than the value at 
which it was entered on the books; but no account was 
taken of the depreciation. As a consequence, after sev- 
eral years, an investigation showed that an apparent sur- 
plus, which was being carried on the books, did not exist. 
This investigation at once made it apparent that the 
stock of the mill, which had been considered worth above 
par, was in reality of but little value. The trouble in this 
case was bad system of bookkeeping, and the absence of 
regular reports, detailing to the officers all the current 
conditions. 

Example 4. A cloth and yarn mill prospered and paid 
good dividends for nearly 20 years. It did best in its early 
history. At the end of 20 years, it could no longer pay 
dividends, and in fact had to be sold. 

The trouble with this mill was in paying out all their 
apparent profits for dividends, and in saving nothing for 
<iepreciation. 

Conditions favorable to one sort of manufacture may 
not be favorable to another. In Chapter VI, it has been 
shown that for fine goods the labor is the large and con- 
trolling factor, while for coarse goods, raw materials is the 
controlling one. Therefore, a management capable of 
making a great success on fine goods, where the sur- 
roundings are favorable and skilled labor plentiful, might 
make a great mistake, and damage a justly earned reputa- 
tion by undertaking to handle a mill on coarse goods with 
unfavorable surroundings and raw material high. 




>^ 



O 

'IT 






o 

bio 



MILL. MANAGEMENT. .175 

A good management may undertake to redeem a fail- 
ing plant under unfavorable conditions, and fail to do so, 
because of the conditions. A plant giving mediocre, or 
failing results may be put in the hands of new manage- 
ment and made very successful. This would mean that the 
conditions were all right, and that the improvement was 
in the value of the personality of the new management. 

Besides the value of personality and the value of condi- 
tions, there must be also fair markets. It may happen 
that markets for certain Hues of goods go to pieces. 
Neither local management nor local conditions can over- 
come this difficulty. This relates especially to goods that 
are dependent on fashion or on taste of customers, as for 
example, the gingham business in weaving, or jersey 
waists and sweaters in knit goods. 

It always pays to get the best of good management, 
and pay the price necessary to get the best. This applies 
to both the business manager and the superintendent. 

To recapitulate, the factors which may separately or to- 
gether determine the fate of a mill, are as follows: 

1. Personality of management. 

2. Market for goods. 

3. Surrounding conditions, especially with reference 
to available labor and raw material. 

4. Bookkeeping, especially with reference to inven- 
tory valuations, and full exhibits of conditions. 

5. Harmony in the board of directors and among the 
stockholders. 

6. Ability of superintendent. 



CHAPTER XV. 

Jfarm ant) jfactori?. 

There is great complaint in the cotton producing area 
of the United States about the depressed condition of ag- 
riculture. The cotton producer finds it difficult to make 
ends meet with cotton at 5 cents per pound. Much has 
been said about curtailment of production for the purpose 
of stimulating the price. When it is considered that it is 
not long since the crop was five million bales, and that it 
brought twelve cents a pound, while now the crop is in 
round numbers ten million bales and sells at six cents a 
pound, the idea of curtailing production to stimulate 
price would seem, on the face of it, to be both possible and 
desirable. 

When, however, it is considered that the production of 
cotton is going forward in many other parts of the world, 
especially in Egypt and India under English management, 
and that the production in India now is as much as it was 
in the United States twenty years ago, it is evident that 
in our increasing crop, at lower prices, our people have 
only kept out of the way of foreign competition. 

The world's demand for cotton, at the decreasing price, 
is very large; and even at the decreasing price, if our peo- 
ple do not furnish it, there are other countries that will. 

These matters have been discussed in connection with 
other phases of the general subject in other chapters, but 
that which pertains to the revival of the farming interest 
by the development of manufactures, is brought together 
here for consecutive discussion. 

The production of a cotton crop really requires only 
about 150 days work in a year. If the remaining 150 
working days could be profitably employed, the necessity 
for living on the proceeds of the cotton crop would be 
obviated. 

The development of manufactures creates a cash mar- 
ket for a great variety and large quantity of perishable 
farm products, such as vegetables, fruits, milk, butter, and 




o 

to 

C 
o 

-4-> 

o 

a 

(U 

c 



to 

o 



c3 



bJo 

to 




Fig. 62. Fruit on Farm near Cotton Factory. 



FARM AND FACTORY. 177 

poultry, as well as wood for fuel. A market for these 
things, would make it possible for the farmer to live even 
much better than he would if dependent on the cotton 
crop alone. Therefore, at any point to which foreign com- 
petition might reduce the price, the cotton farmer, with a 
home market for both his cotton and his perishable farm 
products, would still make a good living, and a profit 
equivalent to the value of his cotton crop besides. 

Very full attention has been given to the economical 
production of cotton by means of the establishment of 
agricultural colleges, experiment stations, fertilizer ex- 
aminations, and other means. While it is important and 
valuable to continue to foster these improvements and 
economies, the great advantage in the way of profits lies 
in the direction of manufacturing the cotton at home. 

There is dif^culty in keeping the graduates of agricul" 
tural schools in agricultural pursuits. Considering the 
depressed condition of agriculture, it does not seem amiss 
that young men should for sometime go into manufactur- 
ing pursuits, thereby creating markets for the products of 
those who continue to farm. In due time, farming will 
thus become more attractive and profitable. 

The South has put the manufacture of iron on an ex- 
port basis. The cotton oil industry has been developed 
on an export basis. The South has in these things, set 
the pace and made the prices to which the manufacturers 
of the North must go and come. If we but utilize the re- 
sources we now have, and put to work the idle labor now 
in every undeveloped section of the South, we may supply 
from the cotton growing states, the cloth for the vast 
markets in different parts of the world, which is now fur- 
nished from the factories of England and Germany. 

In all that we do, we want to co-operate with, and not 
antagonize, our friends in New England and other parts 
of the North. For the sale of our goods, we must rely 
much upon the development of foreign markets. In the 
future, it will not be a domestic fight over home products 
The foreign markets we must seek will give outlet enough 
for the products of the North and South both. It is im- 



17S FARM AND FACTORY. 

portant that the people of the whole nation work together 
to acquire and develop these markets. 

Practically all native people in the South are farmers. 
The manufacturing now being done by Southern people 
furnishes evidence of the facility with which the Southern 
farmer extends his operations. Almost every Southern 
man who has gone into manufacturing, is still a farmer, 
and will continue to be so. The escape of the cotton 
farmer from approaching poverty is not in trying to cur- 
tail production and increase the price, but in devising 
means to keep the cheap cotton at home, and utilizing 
surplus time in turning it into cloth worth i8 cents per 
pound and upward. 

For more than a quarter of a century, the political and 
social conditions in the South have been unfavorable for 
the development of natural interests. The generation 
that is now passing away has withstood a test of Anglo- 
Saxon sturdiness and steadiness of purpose never before 
put upon any people. They stood as a bulwark fighting 
for a whole generation for the preservation of Anglo- 
Saxon civilization — fighting against the strong prejudices 
of other people of their own race, living at a distance, and 
against semi-barbaric influences that were supported and 
urged on by those prejudices. This contest is over. 
It is no wonder that during its progress, so little advance 
was made in material prosperity; but it is a wonder that 
the production of cotton has kept ahead of that of other 
advancing cotton growing countries. 

For the coming generation, the way to prosperity is 
wide open and plain. The passing generation has won 
the fight against anarchy, and left to their children a her- 
itage more valuable than any riches. It is now simply a 
question of redemption from poverty. To do this, we 
must combine farming and manufacturing. 

We must create and maintain an untarnished credit. 
Keep all contracts inviolate and sacred. The commer- 
cial strength of England lies more than in any other 
thing in the perfect faith which England and the English 
people maintain with those with whom they deal. The 




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FARM AND FACTORY. 179 

true Englishman never repudiates an obligation, even 
though he gets nothing in return from what he has con- 
tracted to pay. 

If we would turn our cotton into cloth, we must of ne- 
cessity, go into the markets of the world, and a reputation 
for fair dealing and fulfillment of contracts is a pre-requi" 
site for continued trade with the nations of the world. 

We must enlarge and maintain our shipping. We must 
have a merchant marine and a navy to protect it. We 
have reached that point in our industrial development 
when, if we extend our manufactures further, we must 
have more markets. We have built railroads by subsidies. 
There is hardly a town, county or state that has not con- 
tributed in bonds or in money or in lands, or in the use of 
streets, to the construction of one or more railroads. Al- 
most every railroad in the United States has had more or 
less bounty money to aid in its construction. Towns vie 
with each other to-day in offering bounties to obtain new 
lines of roads, and everybody feels that it pays to do so. 
Yet there is an incomprehensible prejudice against giving 
even a fair mail contract to a new line of ships to a for- 
eign country. England and Germany send their subsi- 
dized ships after our five cent cotton. They will not 
continue to come for our fifteen cent cloth. These coun- 
tries want to hold the manufactures, and hold the trade. 
We must have our own ships, as we must also have a navy 
to protect them. 

Wherever there are markets for our manufactured 
goods, we need American banking facilities. We must 
have a money upon which the people of all the world can 
rely. American money must be at all times, and under all 
circumstances as good as English money. 

The farmer, by his influence and vote, can bring about 
these conditions. In bringing them about, he is multi- 
plying by three the value of his cotton, and tripling the 
value of his lands. It is in this way that the monopoly 
in the production of cotton can be held. It is the way 
prosperity can be brought to the South and for all time 
maintained. ' ' ' '' 1 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Biograpbtcal SF^etcbes, 

In previous chapters it has been shown that the South- 
ern States enjoyed great manufacturing prosperity in the 
early part of the century. Although, as slavery grew, 
this interest was never entirely lost, there was a period 
from 1840 to i860, when the interest of the South sorely 
needed manufacturing as well as agricultural develop- 
ment. Only those men whc appreciated this condition 
undertook to go counter to the growing sentiment in fa- 
vor of agriculture and slave labor. Those who did con- 
tinue to manufacture, were necessarily men of broad views 
and great abilities. Biographical sketches of some of 
these men (and there were not many of them) are given 
in the succeeding pages. 




WILLIAM GREGG. 



BIOGRAPHICAX, SKETCHES. 181 

WILLIAM GREGG. 

The appendix to this volume is composed of a series of 
essays written by William Gregg in 1845. The preface to 
this appendix gives an outline of Mr. Gregg's industrial 
career. The essays themselves so clearly exhibit his con- 
victions and sentiments on the subject of manufacturing 
that it would seem superfluous to further dwell upon this 
feature of his character. 

He built a cotton factory at Graniteville in Edgetield 
District, South Carolina in 1847. This was successful 
from the start, and remained so to the present time. 

From the minutes of the Beech Island, South Carolina 
Farmers Club, is copied the following tribute to his mem- 
ory: 

"Died on the 12th September, 1867, William Gregg, the 
founder of Graniteville. He was for many years a mem- 
ber of this Club, adding largely by his practical knowledge 
to the interest and usefulness of its meetings. Though 
not a farmer by profession, yet by the estabhshment of ex- 
tensive orchards at Kalmia, he introduced among the bar- 
ren sand hills of this section, a new culture, and in this, as 
in erecting his factory, in building the village of Granite- 
ville, in opening schools and churches to a large communi- 
ty, all he did seemed to expand in widening circles of ben- 
efit and blessing. In grateful remembrance of him, as a 
friend and neighbor, as the representative of honest indus- 
try, as an eminent citizen and as a public benefactor, these 
lines are inscribed." 




FRANCIS FRIES. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 183 

FRANCIS FRIES. 

Among the pioneer manufacturers of North CaroHna, 
was Francis Fries, of Salem. He was born October ly, 
1 812. His father, J. C. William Fries, was the son of a 
Moravian minister, who held a responsible position on the 
Executive Board of the Moravian Church in Herrnhut, 
Saxony. He emigrated to America and settled and mar- 
ried in Salem. N. C. The father had wished that Francis 
Fries should become a minister, and with this end in view, 
sent him to Nazareth Hall, Pa., to receive a classical and 
theological education. Upon his return to Salem, he be- 
came a teacher, but, finding that he had no taste for the 
ministry or teaching, he read law with Mr. Emanual Sho- 
ber, and was admitted to the bar. After practicing law 
for a short time, he was appointed agent for the Salem 
(Cotton) Manufacturing Co., of which Dr. Schumann was 
president. 

Without mechanical training, but with characteristic 
energy and thought, he threw himself into the new task, 
and A-isited Paterson, New Jersey, and ether Northern 
points, to study manufacturing. He secured the plans, 
and personally superintended the erection of the plant in 
1836, and under his management the lousiness was a de- 
cided success. In the summer of 1840, he commenced 
business on his own account with the financial assistance 
of John Vogler, Sr., whose daughter he had married in 
1838. This first independent venture was but a small one, 
consisting of a set of cards for making rolls from the wool 
raised by neighboring farmers. This mill also contained 
a small dyeing and fulling plant for coloring and finishing 
the cloth woven by the farmers' wives and daughters. In 
1842 he added spinning machinery, and later a few looms. 

To realize the difflculties that presented themselves 
during these early years, it must be remembered that he 
was compelled to visit Northern cities by private convey- 
ance. He and Mr. Edwin M. Holt, another pioneer man- 
ufacturer, were close friends, and after alternate trips, 
each reported to the other all the improvements that were 



184 BIOGRAPHICAL. SKETCHES. 

taking place in cotton machinery since either had last vis- 
ited the Northern centres. 

On the 5th of March, 1846, his brother, H. W. Fries, 
was admitted to partnership with him, and the firm was 
thereafter known as F. & H. Fries. In 1848 they built a 
cotton mill which was run until 1880, when the old ma- 
chinery was removed, and the building became a part of 
the enlarged woolen mill. 

In 1857, Mr. Fries represented his county in the Legis- 
lature, and devoted a large portion of the sessions to the 
revision of the system of taxation and the re-organization 
of the Revenue Act. 

Francis Fries was not only a successful cotton and 
woolen manufacturer, but a prominent and useful citizen. 
He designed the first Court House for the city of Win- 
ston. He planned and built the main building of Salem 
Female Academy, and numerous other buildings in Salem. 
Before the days of railroads he took an important part in 
all movements looking toward the development of the 
State, and was one of the prime movers in building the 
plank road which extended from Fayetteville into western 
Carolina. He was associated with Gov. Morehead and 
other prominent men in the building of the North Caro- 
lina Railroad, and was a stockholder and director in said 
road from its orgnization to his death. 

Locally, he exercised a wide influence throughout his 
entire community, and in addition to his numerous other 
business enterprises for some years successfully conduct- 
ed a tannery and store. 

As lawyer and magistrate, architect and builder, finan- 
cier, merchant and manufacturer, he held many important 
positions in his church, community and State. 

He died August i, 1863, leaving a will under which the 
surviving partner conducted the business until the final 
settlement of the estate, which was in January, 1879. 




E. M. HOLT. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 185 

EDWIN MICHAEL HOLT. 

E. M. Holt was born in January, 1807, in Orange (now 
Alamance) County, North Carolina. He obtained a fair 
education in the district schools at home. 

His father was Michael Holt, a farmer, who for some 
time represented his county in the State Legislature. 

He married Emily Farish, whose father, Thomas 
Farish, was a farmer of Chatham county, and who owned 
the coal mines in that county. 

In the thirties, he formed a partnership with \V . A. Car- 
rigan and built a mill for spinning cotton on Alamance 
creek, in Alamance county. This mill was operated by 
water power. 

While continuing all his life a farmer, his energies were 
largely directed toward advancing the material interests 
of his State. For many years he was on the Board of Di- 
rectors, and on the finance committee, of the North Caro- 
lina Railroad. 

In the early fifties, he commenced the manufacture of 
colored cotton cloth. He called his product "Alamance 
pk'.ids," but these goods were always known through the 
country as "Alamance." 

Under his general guidance and counsel, and with his 
financial aid, all of his sons built cotton mills before his 
death. At the present time, the various "Holt mills" in 
North Carolina, have in the aggregate over 100,000 spin- 
dles and over 3,000 looms, most of which are making col- 
ored goods. 

All of this development may be said to have sprung 
from the parent mill on Alamance creek. 

E. M. Holt was a close personal friend of Francis Fries, 
of Salem, and of John M. Morehead, of Leaksville. These 
friendships resulted in much good to all of these pioneer 
manufacturers, and to the industrial interests of the whole 
State. 

In common with most manufacturers of his day, E. M. 
Holt was a strong Whig. He kept actively in business 
until 1880, and died May 14, 1884. 



186 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

JOHN \V. LEAK. 

John \\'. Leak was born in Richmond county, North 
Carolina, March i6, 1816. His parents were \MlHam P. 
and Ann Wall Leak, who moved to North Carolina from 
Gloucester County, Virginia, and were among the earliest 
settlers along the Pee Dee River. His grandfather, 
Walter Leak, Sr., served as a private in the American 
army throughout the Revolutionary war, and died at 
Rockingham, N. C, in 1844. 

John W. Leak graduated from Randolph- Alacon Col- 
lege, about 1837. He married soon after, and moved to- 
Cheraw, S. C, where, for many years he was a successful 
merchant and planter. 

In 1854. he returned to Rockingham, N. C. In 1861, 
he was elected Lieutenant Colonel of the 13th N. C. State 
troops, afterward the 23rd regiment of the army of 
Northern Virginia. He held this position until the re-or- 
ganization in 1862. 

The Company owning the Great Falls (North Carolina) 
Cotton Mill, was first chartered and organized in 1833 as 
the "Richmond Manufacturing Co." For some time pre- 
vious, and during the Civil war, John W. Leak was the 
president of this Company. The mill was burned by Sher- 
man in 1865, and rebuilt and re-organized in 1869. 

The first board of directors under the re-organization 
was composed of John W. Leak, W. F. Leak and Dr. A. 
J. DeRosette. of \\'ilmington, N. C. John W. Leak was 
again made president. Under his able and prudent man- 
agement, the mill was always successful, and paid good 
dividends. The mill from the first made yarns and plain 
white cloth. 

John W. Leak died in May, 1876. 



-^"'>^. 




JOHN W. LEAK. 




JOHN M. MOREHEAD. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 187 

JOHN MOTLEY MOREHEAD. 

John M. Morehead was born in Pittsylvania county, 
Virt^inia, July 4, 1796. His father was Esquire John 
Morehead, and his mother's maiden name was Obedience 
Motley. The family moved to Rockingham county, N. C, 
in 1798. 

He was prepared for college by his father's friends. 
Judge Settle and Dr. Caldwell, of Guilford county. He 
gradur.ted from the University of North Carolina in 1817. 

In 1 82 1, he married Ann Eliza Lindsay. He moved to 
Guilford county in 1823. 

He was a lawyer by profession and a very successful one. 
He represented Guilford county a number of years in both 
branches of the Legislature, and was twice elected gov- 
ernor of the State. 

He was a Whig and a strong personal friend of Henry 
Clay. He presided over the National Convention that 
nominated Zachary Taylor for President in 1848. 

Together with Messrs. Rul^n, Reid and Barringer, he 
was sent by North Carolina to the so-called "Peace Con^ 
gress," in Washington, in 1861. He went to this Con- 
gress as an advocate of the Union, but when war was 
found to be inevitable he was a warm supporter of the 
Confederacy, and was a member of the Confederate Con- 
gress. On account of the pressure of business, he de- 
clined the portfolio of Secretary of the Treasury. 

Although a man always in public life, John M. More- 
head w-as essentially a promoter of industrial enterprises. 
At a time w^hen his State had no railroads, he labored 
earnestly in the various Legislatures for the North Caro- 
lina Railroad, and canvassed the State from end to end for 
subscriptions to the stock. He succeeded in building this 
road from Charlotte to Goldsboro. He acted as President 
until it was completed, and turned it over to the stock- 
holders in 1853. entirely free from mortgages. This was 
an unparalleled feat in the history of railroads. 

He was one of the early manufacturers of cotton in 
North Carolina. In 1838, he built the Leaksville cotton 



iSS BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

factor}-, at what is now Spray, N. C, and managed it suc- 
cessfully as long as he lived. 

Ke died at Rockbridge Alum Springs, August 27, 1866. 

The life of John M. Morehead was one of action in all 
he undertook. It was only by such men — strong and 
broad — that manufacturing, was kept alive in the South, 
throughout the ascendancy of the regime of slavery with 
its attendant agricultural aristocracy. 




H. P. HAMMETT. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. SKETCHES. 189 

HENRY P. HAMMETT. 

H. P. Hammett was born in Greenville county, South 
Carolina, December 31, 1822. He was educated in the 
common schools, and worked on the farm during vaca- 
tions. He taught school three years. 

He married Jane Bates, daughter of William Bates, who 
was founder of the Batesville cotton factory at Batesville, 
South Carolina. 

Air. Hammett was made a member of the firm of Wm. 
Bates & Co., which operated the cotton factory for fifteen 
years. 

The factory was sold in 1863, and Mr. Hammett went 
into the Civil war. He was soon after detailed from the 
army for duty in the tax office of the Confederate govern- 
ment, where he remained until the close of the war. 

In 1865, he represented Greenville county in the South 
Carolina Legislature. 

In 1866. he was made President of the Greenville & 
Columbia Railroad. This road was much run down in 
consequence of the war, but he greatly improved it during 
his four years administration. 

He resigned his position from the railroad to build the 
Piedmont cotton mill, and had it well under way when the 
panic of 1873 caused him to suspend operations. He 
succeeded in raising the capital and starting again in 1876. 
The mill was started with 10,000 spindles and 300 looms, 
and was steadily increased in capacity, until in 1891, there 
were 45,944 spindles. This was the first cotton mill in the 
South to make for the export trade, 36 inch sheetings, 
three yards to the pound. Following this lead, there has 
been a large and growing export trade of cotton goods 
from the South to China. 

Mr. Hammett may be said to have inaugurated a re- 
naissance of cotton milling in the South. For, while 
there was a general renewal of the industry throughout 
the country, after the abolition of slavery, it was on the old 
lines, and with more or less old machinery. The Piedmont 
mill was designed, built and equipped after strictly mod- 
•ern plans. 



190 BIOGRAPHICAL, SKETCHES. 

Mr. Hammett was also President of the Camperdown 
Mills in Greenville, South Carolina. 

He was for several years mayor of the city of Greenville^ 
and manifested great interest in all industries of the city. 

He was eminently successful in managing the "factory 
village." He took pleasure in looking after the educa- 
tional and religious welfare of his operatives. 

He died May 8, 1891. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

Stattettcal tables an^ IRotee IRelattua to 
Cotton fiDanufacturtna- 

The tables have been compiled and computed from a 
large number of sources. The United States census re- 
ports have been used, when available. 

There is confusion in many tables of cotton statistics, 
on account of the uncertainty of the word "bale." It is 
sometimes used to mean the actual bales of random 
weight, as they come into market; and sometimes reduced 
to bales of 400 pounds "net weight" — that is, exclusive of 
bagging and ties; and sometimes reduced to 450 pounds 
net weight. 

The random bale method gives no information as to the 
actual amount of cotton represented, unless the average 
net weight of bale is specified. This is especially true of 
the early history of the business, when the average net 
weight of bale varied from 225 pounds in 1800, to 480 
pounds in 1890. Since that time the average net weights 
have ranged close about 480. 

In foreign markets, the net weight of cotton bales is an 
important unit, for the reason that coton is sold on that 
basis. 

But for the purposes of discussing our domestic produc- 
tion and consumption, the "gross weight" — that is inclu^ 
sive of bagging and ties — is the important unit. All sales 
on domestic markets are made on gross weights. 

For the past 20 years, the gross weight of bales has av- 
eraged about 500 pounds. Therefore, for convenience in 
computation, the word "bale" is here taken to mean 500 
pounds, including the weight of bagging and ties. 



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TABLE XXIII.— SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF COTTON 
SPINDLES IN THE WORLD.— ESTIMATED FOR igcxj. 



Country. 



Great Britain 

Continental Europe 

India 

Japan 

China 

Canada 

Mexico 

United States 

Total 7 



No. Spindles. 


Per Cent. 


46,000,000 


42.9 


33,000,000 


30.8 


4,500,000 


4.2 


1,500,000 


1.4 


1,000,000 


•9 


700,000 


.7 


500,000 


•5 


20,000,000 


18.6 


107,200,000 


lOO.O 



TABLE XXIV.— SHOWING NUMBER OF COTTON SPINDLES 

IN THE UNITED STATES FROM 1800 TO 1900. ALSO 

THE VALUE OF GOODS PRODUCED. 



Year. 


No. Spindles. 


Value of Product. 


1800 


2,000 


$ 170,000 


1810 


90,000 


3,240,000 


1820 


220,000 


25,000,000 


1830 


1,200,000 


27,000,000 


1840 


2,300,000 


46,350,000 


1850 


2,500,000 


61,869,000 


i860 


5,200,000 


115,682,000 


1870 


7,100,000 


177,490,000 


1880 


10,700,000 


192,090,000 


1890 


14,200,000 


267,982,000 


(Est.) 1900 


20,000,000 


450,000,000 



TABLE XXV— SHOWING VALUE OF ALL PRODUCl^S MANU- 
FACTURED IN THE UNITED STATES FROM 1850 TO 1900. 





1850 


$ 1,019,106,000 




i860 


1,885,862,000 




1870 


3,385,860,000 




1880 


5,345,191,000 




1890 


9,056,765,000 


(Est.) 


1900 


20,000,000,000 



TABIyE XXVI— SHOWING WHAT PER CENT. OF THE COST 

OF COTTON GOODS IS THE RAW MATERIAL, AND 

WHAT PER CENT. IS LABOR. ALSO SHOWING 

PRODUCTION OF COTTON YARN 

PER SPINDLE. 



Section. 



United States 

New England States 

Middle States 

Southern States 



Per cent, of Whole Cost. 



Cotton. 



44 
42 

34 
59 



Labor. 



26 
28 
26 
19 



Production, 
Pounds per 
Spindle per 
Year. 



79 
66 

78 
161 



TABLE XXVII— SHOWING SOME COUNTIES IN NORTH AND 

SOUTH CAROLINA THAT SPIN MORE COTTON THAN 

THEY PRODUCE. 



ESTIMATED FOR I900. 






Bales 500 Pounds Gross. 




Spin. 


Produce. 


Deficit. 


Spartanburg Co., S. C 

Greenville Co., S. C 

Anderson Co., S. C 

'Gaston Co. , N. C 

Mecklenburg Co., N. C 


180,000 
65,000 
70,000 
50,000 
30,000 


45,000 
40,000 
60,000 
15,000 
20,000 


135,000 
15,000 
10,000 
35.000 
10,000 



Export Trade. 

Some of the figures in the preceding tables are interest- 
ing, as exhibiting the needs of the United States in the 
matter of export trade. It will be noted from table XXIV 
that the spindles in the United States numbered in 1890 
fourteen million. By taking the number now in operation, 
and those ordered and which will be in operation, it is 
manifest that in 1900 the United States will have twenty 
million spindles in operation. Assuming a normal domes- 
tic market in 1890, it is plain that the product of the 
additional six million spindles must have found export 
markets, or else there would have been a most serious 
depression in the business of cotton manufacture, and a 
sharp check on the construction of new mills. There would 
also have necessarily developed a harsh competition between 
the mills of New England and the South, for the limited 
domestic trade. As a matter of fact something of that 
unnecessary competition did show itself from about 1893 
to 1896, as the mills increased. The severity of this com- 
petition was only relieved by growth of export markets, 
which are now taking our surplus. This trade was devel- 
oped with very little help from our government, and with 
no great exertion on the part of our merchants. It grew 
because of the necessity here, and because of the complete 
ripeness of the Chinese and other foreign markets, largely 
based upon the superior quality of American goods. 

We cannot further rely upon the spontaneous growth of 
foreign markets. Other governments, observing our ad- 
vantage, will take steps in the interest of their people to 
balance our natural advantages. Russia is now moving to 
do this in Manchuria, by "spheres of influence," by railropd 
construction, and by other means. 

From table XXV, it will be noted that in 1890 the value 
of the manufactured products in the United States aggre- 
gated about 9 billion dollars. In 1900 the value of 
these products are estimated at 20 billion dollars, or 



more than double 1890. Here again it is made apparent 
that the depressed condition of business from 1893 to 1896 
was made by an excess of production for limited markets, 
and that the relief came in the shape of export trade. 
Since then conditions have been constantly improving in 
proportion to the expansion of this trade. 

Inasmuch as the further growth of our manufactures is 
dependent upon export trade, the facilities necessary for its 
promotion seem to be as follows : 

1. Construction of an Isthmian ship canal. 

2. Extension of our merchant marine to make the ocean 
transportation facilities, which are necessary to carry 
our goods. 

3. Reform consular service to make it serve our commerce, 
rather than politics. 

4. Keep the Philippines, and maintain the integrity of 
the Chinese Empire, and the freedom of trade in that 
Empire on equal terms to all nations. 



NOTES ON SO:\[E EARLY SOUTHERN COTTON 

MILLS. 

1 813. Michael Schenck and Absalom Warlick (his 
brother-in-law), built a mill on Mill Branch, one and 
one-half miles east of Lincolnton, Lincoln County, 
N. C. Much of the machinery was built by Michael 
Bean, on the premises. The original contract fo¥ 
this machinery is still in existence. For $1,300, 
Bean built and installed 2 spinning frames with 70 
fliers each, and 2 cards and i picker. 
John Hoke and Dr. James Bivings bought an interest 
in the mill in 1819. 

1817. Joel Battle and Henry A. Donaldson built a mill 
at the Falls of Tar River (now Rocky Mount), N. C. 
They worked negro slave labor. Mill was burned 
by Union army, 1863. 

1830. Henry Humphreys built the "Mount Hecla Mills," 
at Greensboro, N. C. It was 3 stories high. 
It was the first steam cotton mill in North Carolina. 
The machinery was shipped from Philadelphia to 
Wilmington, N. C, thence up the river to Fayette- 
ville, N. C, and carried across the country in wagons 
to Greensboro. 

Humphreys issued private paper money in 1832, with 
which he paid his operatives and paid for cotton. 
These were in denominations of .12^, .25, .50, 
$1.00, $3.00, $5.00. Some of the bills are still in exist- 
ence. He redeemed the bills with gold. Thomas 
R. Tate was a clerk for Humphreys. He bought the 
mill. When wood for fuel grew scarce around 
Greensboro, Tate moved the mill by wagon to 
Mountain Island, N. C, where it was operated by 
water power. 

1832-34. E. M. Holt built a mill on Alamance Creek, 
in Orange County, N. C. W. A. Carrigan was asso- 
ciated with him. 



202 EARLY SOUTHERN COTTON MILLS. 

1833. John W. Leak built a mill at Great Falls, N. C. 
It was chartered as "The Richmond Manufacturing 
Company." Mill was burned by the Union army in 
1865, and rebuilt in 1869. 

1833. General McDuffie and Mitchell King built a mill 
at Vaucluse, S. C. 

1836. Francis Fries and Dr. Schumann built a mill at 
Salem, N. C. 

1838. John M. Morehead built a mill at Leaksville, N. C. 

1847. William Gregg built a mill at Graniteville, S. C. 



APPENDIX. 



ESSAYS ON DOMESTIC INDUSTRY, 



OR 



An Inquiry into the Expediency of Establishing Cotton 
Manufactures in South Carolina, 



WRITTEN BY 

WILLIAM GREGG, 

Of Edgefield District, South Carolina in 1845. 



PREFACE TO APPENDIX. 



The matter for my book, "Cotton 
Mill, Commercial Features," was col- 
lected through a period of more than 10 
years. In all that time, I have been in 
close contact wi-tto the subject, as Eln- 
gineer or Contractor, or both, in a long' 
list of new and old mills. After com- 
pleting the manuscript, I went to the 
Pelzer mill, in connection with some 
contract work, and was shown by Capt. 
E. A. Smythe, president of that com- 
pany a pamphlet, made up of essays, 
by William Gregg, which were original- 
ly published dn the Charleston Courier, 
in 1845. The pamphlet practically covers 
the ground that my book is intended to 
cover. Thus, more than fifty years ago, 
the subject I am treating, was present- 
ed to the people of South Carolina, on 
the same lines on which I present it, 
even more fully and more cogently 
than I have succeeded in doing. 

Mr. Gregg built the Graniteville fac- 
tory, ttoen in Edgefield District. Prom 
its beginning to the present time, it has 
prospered. 

He advocated the idea of fruit cul- 
ture in Southern climates for Northern 
markets, and himself planted orchards. 
It is now more than a half a century, 
and fruit culture, on plans formulated 
by Mr. Gregg, is just developing. 

I heard of an incident that occurred 
in a political contest between Mr. Gregg 
and Chancellor .Carroll, for the place of 
State Senator from Edgefield District. 
It was the habit for candidates to ap- 
pear together and speak to the people 



from the same platform, and at the 
same meetings. On one of these occa- 
sions, Mr. Gregg spoke first. He stated 
that he solicited votes on the ground 
that he had built a factory, wlilch gave 
work to poor white people. It enhanced 
the value of cotton by manufacturing 
it. He had planted peach orchards to 
develop new avenues of profit and ad- 
vantage to the people, &c., &c. Where- 
as, Chancellor Carroll had never made 
two blades of grass grow where only 
one grew before. 

Mr. Carroll followed Mr. Gregg. He 
was an accomplished orator, and 
praised in eloquent terms, Mr. Gregg's 
enterprise in building a factory. He 
eulogized his plans for fruit culture. 
He admitted', with humility, all the de- 
linquencies Mr. Gregg charged against 
him excepting only one: "He says I 
never made two blades of grass grow 
where only one grew before. Having 
faith in Mr. Gregg's plans and advice 
about orchards, I planted one, and if 
anybody is disposed to believe I never 
made grass grow, I simply Invite them 
to go look at that orchard. It is liter- 
ally run away with grass." The crowd 
laughed, voted for Mr. OarroU and the 
cause of slavery went forward while 
Mr. Gregg staid at home and the cause 
of civilization languished. 

During the last half century Mr. 
Gregg's arguments were almost lost, 
but events are now vindicating his 
position. In the town of Edgefield, 
itself.a cotton mill has been lately 



206 



PREFACE TO APPENDIX. 



built, and the most prospering farming 
section of what was then the Dis'trict, 
is now devoting its energies to fruit cul- 
ture, with profit and satisfaction. 

I publish Mr. Gregg's pamphlet, as an 
appendix to this book, because it seems 
to me that his arguments are as good 
to-day and for our time, as for the time 
in which they were written and pub- 
lished. 

The data that Mr. Gregg gathered 



from the New England factories show 
that they were established in about 
the same way as we are now establish- 
ing factories in the South. 

Eor the use of a copy of this rare 
pamphlet, and for permission to repub- 
lish it, I beg to extend sincere thanks 
Capt. E. A. Smythe, of Pelzer, S. C. 
D. A. TOMPKINS, 
Charlotte, N. C, Oct. 15, 1899. 



ESSAYS ON DOMESTIC INDUSTRY, 



Or An Inquiry Into the Expediency of Establishing Cotton Manu- 
factures in South Carolina. 



CHAPTEOR I. 

It must be apparent to all men of 
discernment that whether a tariff for 
proteotion is continued or not, our only- 
safety, in this State, lies in a chan'g"e 
of our industrial pursuits. The United 
States is destined to be a great manu- 
facturing- country, and a few years, 
even withou'C a protective tartff, will 
place her on a footing with, if not 
ahead of, the most skillful nations, and 
all who have any knowledge of the sub- 
ject admit that South Carolina and 
Georgia possess advantages, which only 
need to be fostered to lead to success 
in cotton manufaotufing. We already 
see North Carolina on the one side, and 
Georgia on the other, making rapid 
strides in these pursuits, and shall we 
stand With our arms foMed, crying 
save us from our oppressors, until we 
are awakened to compete with those 
neighboring States, skilled in the arts? 
It is only necessary for us to turn our 
faces to the southwest to beliold the 
people who are to take the very bread 
from our mouths, if we continue to 
place our reliance on the culture of cot- 
ton, and the time is at hand when we 
shall set about, in good earnest, chang- 
ing our pursuits. It would indeed be 
well for us, if we were not so refined 
in politics' — if the talent, which has 
been, for years past, and is now en- 
gaged in embittering our indolent peo- 
ple against their industrious neiglibors 
of the North, had been with the same 
zeal engaged in promoting domestic 
industry and the encouragement of the 
mechanical arts. If so, we should now 
see a far different state of things in 
South Carolina. It is only necessary 
'to travel over the sterile mountains of 
Connecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont, 
and New Hampshire, to learn the true 
secret of our difficulties, (Mr. McDuf- 
fie to the contrary notwithstanding) to 
learn the difference between indolence 
and industry, extravagance and econo- 
my. We there see the scenery which 
would take the place of our umpaimted 
mansions, dilapidated cabins wi'th mud 
chimneys and no windows, broken down 
raiil fences, fields overgrown with weeds. 



and thrown away, half exhausted, to 
be taken up by pine thickets, beef cat- 
tle unprotected from the inclemency 
of winter, and so poor as barely to pre- 
serve life. In fact, every evidence 'that 
can possibly be exhibited to satisfy a 
stranger that we are, to say the least, 
desititute of every feature which char- 
acterizes an industrious people, may 
be seen among us. Laying aside 'the 
vexed question of a tariff for protection, 
which I don't pretend to advocate, I 
cannot see how we are to look with a 
reasonable hope for relief, even from 
its abandonment, withou't a total change 
of our habits. My recent visit to the 
Northern States has fully satisfied me 
that the true secre't of our diffloulties 
lies in the laziness on the part of tliose 
who ought to labor. We need never 
look for thrift while we permit our im- 
mense timber forests, granite quarries 
and mines, to lie idle, and supply our- 
selves with hewn granite, pine boards, 
laths and shingles, etc., furnished by 
the lazy dogs at the North — ah, worse 
than this, we see our back country 
farmers, many of whom are too lazy to 
mend a broken gate, or repair the 
fences, to protect their crops from the 
neighboring stock, actually supplied 
with their axe, hoe and broom handles, 
pitch forks, rakes, etc., by the indolent 
mountaineers of New Hampshire and 
M as saJchu setts. The time was, when 
every old woman in the country had 
her gourd, from which the country 
gardens were supplied with seeds. We 
now find it more convenient to permit 
this duty to devolve on our careful 
friends, the Yankees. Even our boat- 
oars, and hand-spikes for rolling logs, 
are furnished, ready made, to our hand, 
and what jim-crack can possibly be in- 
vented of which we are not 'the pur- 
chasers? These are the drains whicti 
are impoverishing the South — these are 
the true sources of all our difficulties. 
Need I add, to further exemplify our 
excessive indolence, that the Charles- 
ton market is supplied with fish and 
wild game by Northern men, who come 
out here, as regularly as the winter 
comes, for this purpose, and from our 
own waters and forests often realize. 



208 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



in the course of one winter, a sufficien- 
cy to purchase a small farm in New 
England. 

Oh, fie, Gen. McDufRe, why are you 
no't engaged in the great cause of re- 
forming the habits of your countrymen? 
You once counted the profit of cotton- 
spinning, and, to use the language of 
one of your co-partners, came to the 
conclusion, that 'the establishment you 
"were erecting, would be a perfect mint. 
You engaged in this business with great 
zeal. Why did you permit the estab- 
lishment to dwindle, sicken and die, 
purely for want of that attention, 
which you well know is essential to the 
success of your cotton plantation? 
Why did you not follow the patriotic 
example of the Lowells, Boofts, Jack- 
sons, Appletons, and Lawrences, of 
Boston? who, after fighting for years 
with their native State against the pro- 
tective system, and finding it fastened 
up^m her, did not stop to pre'aeh the 
doctrine of State resistance, but at once 
withdrew their capital from the chan- 
nels of commerce, which had hitherto 
yielded them princely fortunes, and 
commenced cutting their way into the 
forests of Massachusetts, damming up 
rivers, digging can'als, and erecting 
manuifacturing establishments, which 
have yielded to their country tenfold 
the capital invested in them, and they 
that are now living, are enjoying well- 
earned fortunes, and have the satisfac- 
tion of knowing that they gave the im- 
pulse to a system which hajs elicited 
every energy that the State is capable 
of exerting. 

Had you, in your new-born zeal for 
manufac'turing, mixed a little more pa- 
triotism with your efforts, you would 
have taken the pains to ascertain why 
your Vaucluse establishment did not 
realize the sanguine expectations of its 
proprie'tors. You wtould have put your 
own shoulders to the wiieel, and by in- 
vesting a portion of your large plant- 
ing capital in the concern, with your 
knoiwn industry, you could^ not have 
failed to build up an establishment, 
far more lucrative than your planting 
interest. This itself would have given 
an impetus to manufacturing worth 
millions to our State. Had our respect- 
ed General Hamilton, in his zeal to 
build up Charleston, engaged in man- 
ufacturing, instead of commerce, 
with his own talents, business 
tact and perseverance, success 
would have been inevitable. This would 
have placed him beyond the reach of 
that withering' storm which ship- 
wrecked the fortunes and blighted the 
prospects of the wisest merchants in 
the world. With his large capital and 



due a'ttention, there can be no doubt as 
to what would have been the result of 
his engaging in cotton manufacturing. 
Had these two gentlemen. Gen. Mc- 
Duffie and Gen. Hamilton, put their 
capital into manufacturing in 1833, 
there is no telling to what extent it 
would have changed the investments of 
the State. It would, in all probability, 
have saved the greater portion of the 
large sum lost to our citizens by the 
failure of the United States Bank, and 
it would certainly have made valuable 
producers of many individuals who are 
now worthless consumers. 



CHAPTER II. 

A change in our habits and indus- 
trial pursuits is a far greater desidera- 
tum than any change in the laws of 
our government, which the most clam- 
orous opponents of the tariff could de- 
vise. He who has possessed himself 
of the notion that w^e have the indus- 
try, and are wronged out of our hard 
earnings by a lazy set of scheming 
Yankees, to get rid of his delusion, 
needs only seat himself on the Charles- 
ton wharves for a few days, and be- 
hold ship after ship arrive, laden down 
with the various articles produced by 
Yankee industry. Let him behold these 
vessels discharging their cargoes and 
count the cost to South Carolina. Prom 
the month of September till May, our 
wharves are crowded, not only with 
the articles manufactured by the hand- 
icraftsmen of the North, but with vast 
quantities of dairy articles, and all 
kinds of culinary vegetables, which are 
far better adapted to the soil of South 
Carolina, than to those places where 
they are grow^n. Here may be seen a 
picture that ought to bring a blush on 
the face of the statesman who would 
advocate legislative resistance as the 
remedy for our State. It ought to 
make every citizen who feels an inter- 
est in his country, ashamed to visit 
the clothing stores of Charleston, and 
see the vast exhibition of ready made 
clothing, manufactured mostly by the 
women of Philadelphia, New York, Bos- 
ton and other Northern cities, to the 
detriment and star^'ation of our coun- 
trywomen, hundreds of whom may be 
found in our own good city in wretched 
pover'ty, unable to procure work by 
which they would be glad to earn a de- 
cent living. 

One would not suppose that the South 
was laboring under embarrassment, if 
he were to see the crowds that are con- 
tinually thronging the Northern! cities 
and places of amusement. I have heard 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



209 



the number variously estimated at 
from 40 to 60 thousand in one summer. 
Taking the lower estimate of the two 
and allowing- for the expenses of each 
individual $300, (and this is certainly 
below the mark,) we shall have $12,000,- 
000 transferred yearly from the South 
to the North, by absenteeism. As bad 
off as we know South Carolina to be, 
yet we are certain she furnishes her 
full quota, of this immense sum. Go 
where you may, in the city or out of it 
— in what direction you please, and you 
can scarcely set your foot into a rail- 
road car, in which you will not find 
some half dozen persons from this 
State. The register book of every fash- 
ionable hotel that I visited, exhibited 
a large share of names, with South 
Carolina attached to them. Nor are 
our people remarkable for their eco- 
nomical habits, as the bar-keepers will 
inform you, that their wine bills exhib- 
it liberality even to wastefulness. You 
may see them too, flying around cities, 
in the finest and most costly equipages 
that money can procure, and Tv^ile a 
millionaire of New York is content to 
ride in an omnibus, from Wall street 
to the upper part of the city, many of 
these persons, not worth ten thousand 
dollars, would be ashamed to be seen 
in such vehicles. With tailors, milli- 
ners, mantua-makers, etc., these per- 
sons are considered to have gold with- 
out measure, and it is a perfect wind- 
fall for them to meet occasionally with 
one. You cannot step into a furniture 
store, carpet ware house, or dry goods 
establishment, where fine silks and 
laces are sold, without meeting per- 
sons from our State, making lavish ex- 
penditures and purchasing thousands 
of articles of wearing apparel, which 
are not worn until they return home, 
where the same articles can be ob- 
tained in the stores of our own trades- 
men, at cheaper rates than those at 
which they were purchased at the 
North. 

At one tailor's establishment in Bos- 
ton, I was informed by the proprietor 
that his sales for the last year, to 
Charleston, alone, amounted to up- 
wards of $50,000, and this year he ex- 
pected they would reach $80,000. How 
much trade others in Boston in the 
same business receive from Charleston, 
and what amount falls to the lot of the 
fashionable dlothiers of New York and 
Philadelphia, cannot be estimated, but 
there is little doubt, that the amount 
would be found quite sufficient to sup- 
port three or four fashionable estab- 
lishments in our own city. 

Let South Carolina be true to herself, 
let her g-o to work with a determina- 



tion to resist the Northern tariffites, by 
resolving not to purchase or use their 
articles of manufacture. This will cure 
the evil, and bring us to the point we 
desire to arrive at, by an easier and 
much shorter road than legislative ac- 
tion. Limited as our manufactures are 
in South Car^olina, we can now, more 
than supply the State with coaree cot- 
ton fabrics. Many of the fabrics now 
manufactured here are exported to New 
York, and, for aught I know, find their 
way to the East Indies. We can most 
assuredly make our own axe handles, 
raise our own cabbages, beets, pota- 
toes, and onions; our boys, as in olden 
tim^es, may be taught to make their 
own toy wagons and wheel-barrows, 
our wives and sisters can hem our hand- 
kerchiefs and bake our bread. If we 
continue in our present habits, it would 
not be unreasonable to predict, that 
when the Raleigh railroad is extended 
to Columbia, our members of the Leg- 
islature will be fed on Yankee baker's 
bread. Pardon me for repeating the 
call on South Carolina to go to work. 
God speed the day when her politicians 
will be exhorting the people to domes- 
tic industry, instead of State resist- 
ance; when our Clay Clubs and Demo- 
cratic associations will be turned into 
societies for the advancement of sci- 
entific agriculture and the promotio'n 
of mechanic art; when our capitalists 
will be found following the example of 
Boston and other Northern cities, in 
making such investments of their capi- 
tal as will give employment to the poor 
and make them producers, instead of 
burthensome consumers; when our city 
council may become so enlightened as 
to see the propriety of following the 
example of every other city in the civ- 
ilized world, in removing the restric- 
tions on the use of the steam engine, 
now indispe'nsable in every department 
of manufacturing, and to be found by 
hundreds, from the cellars to 'the g"ar- 
rets of houses, in the most densely peo- 
pled parts of Philadelphia, New York, 
Boston, and other cities. God speed the 
day when our State may contain hun- 
dreds of such men as Mr. Simmons, of 
Rhode Island, who manufactures as 
large a quantity of cotton, as is pro- 
duced on Gen. McDuiffie's plantation, in 
South Carolina, on which Mr. S. real- 
izes a larger profit than falls to the lot 
of Gen McDuffie. This, he seems to 
think, is not just as it ought to be, and 
complains bitterly of the government 
for passing such laws as he. Gen. Mc- 
Duffie, supposes to be inistrumental in 
producinig this result. This I appre- 
hend, however, to be altogether suppo- 
sition and not founded on fact. How- 



210 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



ever oppressive the tariff may be to 
South Carolina, I cannot see its bear- 
ing on this case, for I will venture to 
assert that Mr. Simmons is far more 
heavily taxed by the general govern- 
ment than Mr. McDufRe, and receives 
no greater bounty in return. A large 
portion of Mr. Simmons' investment is 
in machinery, and probably of English 
manufacture^ — for there are large quan- 
tities of European machinery used in 
Rhode Islanid. On this outlay, he pays 
to the government a duty of 40 per 
cent. Personally, he certainly con- 
sumes as many taxable articles; and 
his fine dressed factory girls must pay 
four times the tax to the government 
that is paid for the clothing of Gen. 
McDufRe's negroes — leaving out of the 
case the fact that he Gen. McDuffie) 
raises his own wool, and spins and 
weaves it, on his own place, being only 
at the expense of cotton warp thread, 
to make the Linsey, which constitutes 
the winter clothing of his negroes. He 
purchases blankets for the use of his 
slaves. Mr. Simmons, in the rigorous 
climate of Rhode Island, is not without 
the same necessity, for the use of his 
operatives. 

I will now proceed to investigate 
which man should be considered the 
most useful to his country, he who 
manufactures 600 bales of cotton Into 
cloth, or he who produces the sa.me 
from the soil? It will be borne in mind 
that, at this time, there are vastly more 
cotton goods made in the United States 
than is sufficient to supply home con- 
sumption; consequently a large por- 
tion of them are exported to foreign 
nations. There are now about two hun- 
dred and fifty thousand new spindles 
being made and imported, to be put in 
operation in this country, in the course 
of the coming twelve months. These 
will be competent to consume one hun- 
dred thousand additional bales of cot- 
ton, of three hundred and forty-five 
pounds each. As the home market is 
already over-supplied, the capitalists 
now embarking in the business, cannot 
look to anything but foreign trade, for 
the consumption of their fabrics. TMs 
hundred thousand bales of cotton, when 
worked up, will have to be exported, 
and for each hundred bales of domes- 
tics so shipped away, the manufacturer 
according to our mode of calculaition, 
will have to pay to the government 
forty bales, for returning the same to 
this country in merchandise. 

It is not at all probable that Mr. Sim- 
mons exports all his fabrics; for the 
markets to which we export, are noto- 
r'iously better than we can find at 
home. These goods will find English 



competitors in any country to which 
they may be taken, and the fact that 
the eottjn manufacturers of this coun- 
try, can effect sales abroad at remuner- 
ating prices, is conclusive evidence 
that such goods are sold in this coun- 
try, free of duty— and that those en- 
gaged and engaging in this branch of 
business, are not looking to govern- 
ment for laws to enhance the price of 
their goods. 

To- proceed, I will now suppose that 
Mr. Simmons, of Rhode Island, manu- 
factures the same quantity of cot- 
ton that Gen. McDuffie raises. One ac- 
quainted with both branches of the 
business, would then come to the con- 
clusion, that the former employs about 
half the number of hands that are en- 
gaged with the latter; and, to make a 
clear case of it, I will suppose Mr. Sim- 
mons to be located in South Carolina, 
on the Savannah river, by the side of 
Gen. McDuffie, and that the latter 
raises 600 bales of cotton, while the for- 
mer converts into cloth, and ships it to 
a foreign country, bringing back for 
the same, 25 or 30 cents per pound in- 
stead of 6 or 7 cents, as the raw ma- 
terial would, if sent away. Which of 
these two individuals, then, should be 
considered the more useful to his coun- 
try? It would not take a school boy 
long to decide the question. It cannot 
be denied that, whether in Rhode Is- 
land, Maine, or South Carolina, he who 
takes a raw material and converts it 
into a fabric, increasing its value four- 
fold, and sends the same to a foreign 
country, to be returned in merchant 
dise, or money, is a more useful citi- 
zen to the country than he who, hav- 
ing a large number of laborers at com- 
mand, continues to produce an article 
which the world is already overstocked 
with, thus adding to a cause which may 
carry prices to a point, far below what 
has ever yet been known, and which 
may prove ruinous to our whole coun- 
try. No man can doubt the fact, that 
any large cotton planter would be a 
far more useful citizen, were his plan- 
tation converted into a provision farm, 
and he engaged, as Mr. Simmons is, 
with half his force, in cotton spinning — 
consuming 600 bales of cotton, instead 
of producing the same — thus lighten.- 
ing instead of increasing the burden of 
the country. 



CHAPTER in. 

However unpopular the doctrine of 
encouraging domestic industry, in 
South Carolina, may be, I feel satisfied 
that there are few individuals so ultra 
in their notions, with reg'ard to our 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



211 



being exclusively agricultural, tha* will 
not feel charmed with the idea of do- 
mestic industry; it caiiries with it the 
idea of an improved condition of our 
country — of compensated industry, and 
Comforts around us. It is to be la- 
mented that our great, men are not to 
be found in the ranks of tho.se who are 
willing to lend their aid in promoting 
this good cause. Are we :o commence 
another ten years' crusade, to prepare 
the minds of the people of this Stafe 
for revolution;* thus unhinging every 
department of industry, and paralyz- 
ing the best efforts to promo'te the 
welfare of our country. Already do we 
hear of persons, high in the estima- 
tion of our State, largely engaged in 
cotton planting, and on the side of 
State resistance, expressing doubts as 
to the permanency and safety of any 
investments that can be made in 
South Carolina. Lamentable, indeed, is 
it to see so wise and so pure a man as 
Langdon Cheves putting forth the idoc- 
trtne. to South Carolina, that manu- 
factures should be the last resort of a 
country. With the greatest possible re- 
spect for the opinions of this truly 
great man, and the humblest preten- 
sions on my part, I will venture the 
assertion that a greater error was nev- 
er committed by a statesman. No good 
1b without its evil, and I am free to con- 
fess, that when a people become so in- 
fatuated with the spirit of manufac- 
tures, as to undertake to for'ce large es- 
tablishments in unnatural existence, at 
the expense of other pursuits, they are 
committing an error by making an evil 
of that which would otherwise be a 
great blessing. I admit, also, that ag- 
riculture is the natural and "blessed 
employment of man;" but. that a 
country should become eminently pros- 
perous in agriculture, without a high 
state of perfection in the mechanic 
arts, is a thing next to impossible — to 
be dreamed of. not realized^a picture 



*Those who are disposed to agitate 
the State and prepare the minds of the 
people for resisting the laws of Con- 
gress, and particularly those who look 
for so direful a calamity as the dis- 
solution of our Union, should, above all 
others, be most anxious so to diversify 
the industrial pursuits of South Caro- 
lina, as to render her independent of all 
other countries; for as sure as this 
greatest of calamities befalls us, we 
shall find the same causes that pro- 
duced it. making enemies of the na- 
tions which are at present, the best 
customers for our agricultural produc- 
tions. 



of the imagination, not to be found in 
reality on the face of the globe. 

What does this gentleman mean by 
agriculture? Does he intend that we 
shall follow the footsteps of our fore- 
fathers, and still further exhaust our 
soil by the exclusive culture of cotton? 
Does he not know that this system has 
already literally destroyed our State^ 
and driven from it wealth and popula- 
tion—that many of its wealthiest and 
most enterprising citizens have left it, 
in search of new and more productive 
lands? Does he not know that money 
is not wealth to a nation, unless it is 
spent within its borders, in the im- 
provement, mental and physical, of 
the condition of its inhabitants, — in the 
renovation of its soil, — in the construc- 
tion of roads and bridges, in the erec- 
tion of fine houses, and in planting 
orchards, and making barns for the 
protection of produce and live stock. 
This is indeed a kind of wealth that 
will never be realized in South Caro-- 
lina, without domestic manufactures. 
And, lest I be misunderstood as 
to what I mean by domestic manufac- 
tures, I will here state, that 1 mean the 
erection of steam mills in Charleston, 
for every purpose that our mechanics 
may desire, to enable them to compete- 
with foreigners in the manufacture of 
thousands of articles, now imported 
into the State — the erection of steam 
cotton manufactories to employ the 
poor and needy of this city, and the 
hun'dreds who seem to have little else 
to do than follow our military parades 
through the streets — the erection of 
cotton manufactories throughout the 
State, to employ our poor and half 
starved population, whose condition 
could not but be improved in working 
up a part of our cotton into cloth to 
cover their nakedness, and to clothe 
our negroes and ourselves, at a cost 
for the manufacture of the coarse fab- 
rics (osnaburgs) of 2^4 cents per pound 
and for the finer, such as brown an'd 
bleached shirtings, drillings, and cotton 
flannels, of from 3 to 8 cents per pound 
instead of sending the same abroad to 
be returned to us, charged w^ith 12 cents 
per pound for osnaburgs, and from 20 
to 65 cents for the other articles 
named. I mean that, at every village 
and cross road in the State, we should 
have a tannery, a shoe-maker, a 
clothier, a hatter, a blacksmith, (that 
can make and mend our ploughshares 
and trace chains.) a wagon maker, and 
a carriage maker, with their shops 
stored with seasoned lumber, the best 
of which may be obtained in our for- 
ests. This is the kind of manufactures 
I speak of, as being necessary to bring 
forth the energies of a country, and 



212 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



give healthful and vigorous action to 
agriculture, commerce and every de- 
partment of industry, and, without 
which, I venture the assertion that 
this State can never prosper. This is 
the state of things that every true 
friend of South Carolina ought to en- 
deavor to bring about. If he wishes to 
see her worn out and desolate old fields 
turned into green pastures, her villages 
brightened up with the hand of indus- 
try, her dilapidated farm houses taken 
down, to be replaced by opulent man- 
sions, her muddy and almost impass- 
able roads graded and macadamized, 
let him use his endeavors to make the 
people of South Carolina think less of 
their grievances and more of the peace- 
able means of redress — let our politi- 
cians, instead of teaching us to hate 
our Northern brethren, endeavor to 
get up a good feeling for domestic in- 
dustry—let them teach our people that 
the true mode of resistance will be 
found in making more and purchasing 
less; let them endeavor to satisfy our 
capitalists that we are not on the verge 
of revolution, but that there is safety 
in investments in South Carolina, and 
no necessity of seeking, for such pur- 
poses, the stocks of others, or readily 
convertible ones of our own. There is 
no lack of capital in South Carolina; 
Charleston, herself, possesses all the 
requisites, and it is only necessary that 
public attention should be properly di- 
rected to this vast field, for profitable 
investments, in this State, and to stop 
the millions which are being all the 
time transferred from the South to the 
North, and with It would be retained 
amongst us, the enterprising merchant, 
who, on his retirement from the toils 
of business, would forget the green 
fields and pleasant ways of his native 
land, to mingle with us in domestic in- 
dustry. 

Let the manufacture of cotton be 
commenced among us, and we shall 
soon see the capital that has been sent 
out of our State, to be invested in 
Georgia State, and other foreign stocks, 
returned to us. "We shall see the hid- 
den treasures that have been locked 
up, unproductive and rus'ting, coming 
forth to put machinery in motion, and 
to give profitable employment to the 
present unproductive labor of our 
country. To give an idea of the vari- 
ous sources fr'om which capital is 
drawn, for such purposes, I will state 
how the Merrimack Company, at 
Lowell, is made up. It is composed of 
390 stockholders, of whom there are 46 
merchants and traders; 68 females; 52 
individuals retired from business; 80 
administrators, executors, guardians 
and trustees; 23 lawyers; 18 physicians; 



3 literary institutions; 15 farmers; 40 
secretaries, clerks and students; 45 
mechanics, and persons employed in 
the service of the company, who hold 
stock to the amount of $60,000. 

Cbtton manufactures have been the 
pioneers which have introduced and 
given an impetus to all other branches 
of mechanism in Great Britain, the 
continent of Europe, and this country. 
Taking this for granted, one would 
suppose, that the persons who estalb- 
lished the extensive iron establishment, 
now in operation in the mountainous 
parts of our State, although, actuated 
by an enterprising spirit, counted with- 
out their host — it was really putting 
the cart before the horse. I trust, 
however, that a change in our indus- 
trial pursuits is soon to take place, 
which will give a new aspect to things 
in that quarter, that those establish- 
ments are yet to thrive, proving to be 
inexhaustible sources of wealth to our 
State, and monuments to the enter- 
prise of their projectors. If South 
Carolina commences the manufacture 
of cotton in earnest, these works will 
be brought into requisition, and the 
iron produced by them will no longer 
be sent to the Eastern States, to be 
turned into plough shares for us. The 
endless source of demand which will 
spring up for it, will cause a home con- 
sumption for it all. 

The cheapness of water power, if not 
the chief, will at least constitute one 
important element of success with us. 
There is, probably, no State in the Un- 
ion in which water power is more 
abundant. Leaving out of the question 
as being too tedious to enumerate, the 
great number of water falls on the 
tributary streams of the Pee Dee, Wa- 
teree. Broad and Saluda rivers, we will 
notice those only, in the immediate vi- 
cinity of our two lines of railroad to 
Columbia and Hamburg, that is, with- 
in five miles of them. In the most 
healthy regions of the State, abounding 
with granite and building timber, wa- 
ter power may be found, sufficient to 
work up half the crop of South Caro- 
lina, all of which is nearly valueless at 
the present time. For the tnforimation 
of such as are not acquainted with the 
manner of computing the force of fall- 
ing water, I will state, that the quan- 
tity of water used by the generality of 
saw mills, running i)ut one saw, with 
a head of 10 feet, will be sufficient to 
produce, if raised to a head of 15 feet, 
50 horse power. From this statement 
persons may easily calculate what 
such water-falls would be worth, if 
located at Lowell, or near Philadelphia. 
In Lowell water power is sold at $4 
per spindle, which is equal to $262 for 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



213 



each horse power. At Manyunk, 5 
miles from Philadelphia, it is sold for 
$100 for every square inch of under 3 
feet head, and over a 20 foot fall; this 
is equal to $1,016 for each horse power 
It is not so valuable at places unfa- 
vorably located; but the price at which 
it sells in those above mentioned, ac- 
counts at once for the eagerness with 
which such property is sought after, 
in situations remote from navig-ation, 
and even «n mountainous countries. 

God speed on the glorious result that 
may be anticipated fram so great a 
change, in our in'dustrial pursuits. 
Were all our hopes, in this particular, 
consummated. South Carolina would 
present a delightful picture. Every son 
and daughter would find healthful and 
lucrative employment; our roads, 
which are now a disgrace to us, would 
'be improved; we wouM no longer be 
under the necessity of sending to the 
North for half-made wagons an'd car- 
riages, to break our necks; we would 
have, if not as handsome, at least as 
honestly and faithfully made ones, 
and mechanics always a;t hand to re- 
pair them. Workshops would take the 
place of the throngs of clothing, hat, 
an'd shoe stores, and the watdh-word 
would be, from cne seaboard to the 
mountains, success to domestic indus- 
try. 



CHAPTER IV. 

We want no laws for the protection 
of those that embark in the manufac- 
ture of such cotton fabrics as we pro- 
pose to make in South Carolina; nor 
does it follow, as a matter of course, 
that because we advocate a system 
which will diversify the pursuits of our 
people, and enable them to export a 
portion of one of our valuable staples, 
in a manufactured state, that we wish 
manufacturers to predominate over 
other emplojTnents. All must admit 
that, to a certan extnet, the system we 
advocate couM not operate otherwise 
than to produce beneficial results, by 
regulating prices — by insuring a cer- 
tain reward to labor — a profitable in- 
come to capital, and by infusing health, 
vigor and duraisility into every depart- 
ment of industry. It is a well estab- 
lished fact, that capital employed in 
this State, in the culture of cotton, 
does not, with ordinary management, 
yield more fhan 3 or 4, and in some in- 
stances, 2 per cent.; this being the only 
mc^de of employing our capital, except 
in the culture of rice, how can we ex- 
pect to retain men of capital and en- 
terprise among us? Those having the 
first, must be wholly wanting in the 



last— or they must possess an extra- 
ordinary attachment to the land of 
their nativity, to remain with us un- 
der such a state of affairs. 

With this fact before us, is it sur- 
prising that South Carolina sihould re- 
main stationary in population? And let 
it be remembered that the same cause 
which has produced this result, will 
continue to operate hurtfully, in the 
same ratio, as the price of our great 
staple declines. In all probability, an 
additional outlet will soon be opened to 
drain us of our people and our capital. 
How muc"h this is to take from us re- 
mains to be seen. Unless we be- 
take ourselves to some more 
profitable employment than tha 
planting of cotton, what is to 
prevent our most enterprising planters 
from moving, with their negro capital, 
to the Southwest? What is to keep our 
businesis men and moneyed capital in 
South Carolina? Capital will find its 
way to places that afford the greatest 
remuneration, and in leaving our State, 
it will carry with it, its enterprising 
owner. These are truly unpleasant re- 
flections, but they force themselves 
upon us. Who can look forward to the 
future destiny of our State, persisting 
as she does, with such pertinacity, in 
the exclusive and exhausting system of 
agriculture, without dark forebodings. 
If we listen much longer to the ultras 
in agriculture and croakers against me- 
chanical enterprise, it is feared *haj 
they will be the only class left, to 
stir up the indolent sleepers that are 
indisposed to action, and that are will- 
ing to let each day provide for itself. 

Since the discovery that cotton would 
mature In South Carolina, she has 
reaped a golden harvest; but it. is 
feared It has proved a curse rather than 
a blessing, and I believe that she would 
at this day be in a far better condition 
had the discovery never been made. 
Cotton has been to South Carolina what 
the mines of Mexico were to Spain, it 
has produced us such an aibundant sup- 
ply of all the luxuries and elegancies 
of life, with so little exertion on our 
part, that we have become enervated, 
unfitted for other and more laborious 
pursuits, and unprepared to meet the 
state of things, which sooner or later 
must come about. Is it out of place 
here to predict, that the day is not far 
distant, yea, is close at hand, when 
we shall find that we can no longer 
live by that which has heretofore yield- 
ed, us, not only a bountiful and sump- 
tuous living, at home, but has furnished 
the means for carrying thousands and 
tens of thousiands of our citizens 



214 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY 



abroad, to squander their gold in other 
countries — that we have wasted the 
fruits of a rich, virgin soil, in ease and 
luxury — that those who have practiced 
sufficient industry and economy to ac- 
cumulate capital have left, or are leav- 
ing us, to populate other States. 

We shall indeed soon be awakened to 
look about for other pursuits, and we 
shall find that our soil has to be reno- 
vated — our houses and workshops have 
to be built — our roads and bridges have 
to be made, all of which ought to have 
"been done with the rich treasures, that 
"have been transferred to other States. 
Let us begin at once, before it is too 
late, to bring about a change in our 
industrial pursuits — let us set about it 
■before the capital and enterprise be si- 
lenced — let the working men of our 
State who have, by their industry, ac- 
cumulated capital, turn out and give a 
practical lesson to our political leaders, 
that are opposed to this scheme. Even 
Mr. Calhoun, our great oracle — a states- 
man whose purity of character we all 
revere — ^whose elevation to the highest 
office in the gift of the people of the 
United States, would enlist the undivid- 
ed vote of South Carolina — even he is 
against us in this matter; he will tell 
you that no mechanical enterprise will 
succeed in South Carolina — that good 
mechanics will go where their talents 
•are better rewarded — 'that to thrive in 
cotton spinning, one should go to Rhode 
Island — that to undertake it here, will 
not only lead to loss of capital, but dis- 
appointment and ruin to those who en- 
gage in it. 

If we look at this subject in the ab- 
stract only, we shall very naturally 
come to the above conclusions; it is, 
however, often 'the case, that practical 
results contradict the plainest aT>stract 
propositions, and it hoped, that in the 
course of these remarks, it will be 
proved to the satisfaction of at least 
some O'f our men of capital and enter- 
prise that the spinning of cotton may 
\)e. undertaken with a certainty of suc- 
cess, in the two Carolinas and Georgia, 
and that the failures which have taken 
place, ought not to deter others from 
embarking in the businesis, they being 
the result of unpardonable ignorance, 
and just such management on the part 
of those interested, as would prove ruin- 
ous in any other undertaking. 

There are those who understand some 
things, as well as, if not better than, 
other people, who have taken pains to 
give this subject a thoroug'h investiga- 
tion, and who could probably give 
even Mr. Calhoun a practical lesson 
concerning it. The known zeal with 
v.-hich this distinguished gentleman has 



always engaged in everything relating 
to the interest of South Carolina for- 
bids the idea that he is not a friend to 
domestic manufactures, fairly brought 
about; and, knowing, as he must know, 
the influence which he exerts, he should 
be more guarded in expressing opin- 
ions adverse to so good a cause. 

Those who project new enterprises, 
tiave in all ages and countries had much 
to contend with, and if it were not that 
we have such immense advantages, in 
the cheapness of labor and of the raw 
material, we might despair of success 
in the manufacture of cotton in South 
Carolina. But we must lecollect that 
those who first embarked in this busi- 
ness in Rhode Island had the prejudice 
of the whole country against them. 
There were croakers then as well aa 
now, and in addition to all the disad- 
vantages we have to contend with, the 
wide ocean lay between them and the 
nations skilled in mechanic arts — the 
laws of England forbade the export of 
mactiinery, and aifixed heavy penal- 
ties to prevent the emigration of arti- 
sans, and it was next to impassible to 
gain access to her manufacturing estab- 
lishments; so that these men were com- 
pletely shut out from knowledge. How 
is it with us? "We find no difficulty In 
obtaining the information, which money 
could not purchase for them, and which 
cost them years of to:il. T^ie New Eng- 
land people are anxious for us to go to 
spinning cotton, and they are ready 
and willing to give us all the requisite 
information. The w^orkshops of Eng- 
land and America are thrown open to 
us, and he who has the capital at com- 
mand may, by a visit to England, or to 
our Northern machine shops, supply 
himself with the best machinery that 
the world affords, and also the best ma- 
chinists, and most skillful manufac- 
turers to work and keep it in order. 
With all these advantages, what is to 
prevent the success of a cotton factory 
in South Carolina? It may safely be 
asserted that failure will be the re- 
sult of nothing but the grossest mis- 
management. 

It will be remembered that tSie wise 
men of the day predicted the failure 
of ste'am navigation, and also of our 
own railroad; it was said we were de- 
ficient in mechanical skill, and that we 
could not manage the complicated ma- 
chinery of a steam engine, yet these 
works have succeeded — we have found 
men competent to manage them — they 
grow up amongst us, and we are not 
only able to keep such machines in or- 
der, but to build arfd fit them to steam- 
boats, mills, locomotive carriages, etc., 
and t*ie shops engaged in this sort of 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



215 



manufactures do away with much of 
the reproach that attaches to our city 
— th'ey remove many of the obstacles in 
erecting cotton factories, for they can 
furnish steam engines, water wheels, 
shafting, and all the running gear to 
put machinery in operation. 



CHAPTER V. 

Surely there is nothing in cotton spin- 
ning that can poison the atmosphere of 
Sourh Carolina. Why not spin as well 
as plant cotton? The same hand that 
attends the gin may work a carding 
machine. The girl who is capable of 
making thread on a country spinning 
wheel may do the same with equal fa- 
cility on the ttirostle frame. The wo- 
man who can warp the thread and 
weave it on a common loom may soon 
be taught to do the same on the power 
loom; and so with all the departments, 
from the raw cotton to the cloth. Ex- 
perience has proved that any child, 
wSiite or black of ordinary capacity, 
may be taught in a few weeks to be 
expert in any part of a cotton factory; 
moreover, all overseers who have expe- 
rience in the matter give a decided 
preference to blacks as operatives. 

Montgomery, an English manufac- 
turer, after a residence of eight years 
in this country (in tiis Treatise on the 
Cotton Manufactures of the United 
States Compared with Great Britain), 
says: "If the experiment of slave labor 
succeeds in factories as is confidently ex- 
pected, the cost of manufacturing the 
cctton into cloth will be much less there 
(United States) than anywhere else, so 
that it will not be surprising if in the 
course of a few years those Southern 
factories s^iould manufacture coarse 
cotton goods and sell them in the pub- 
lic markets at one-half the price, at 
which they are manufactured in Eng- 
land. TTiere are several cotton factories 
in Tennessee operated entirely by slave 
labor, there not being a white man in 
the mill but the superintendent, and ac- 
cording to a letter lately received from 
the superintendent of one of these fac- 
tories it appears that the blacks do 
their work in every respect as well as 
could be expected from whites." 

There are many reasons why blacks 
should be preferred, two of which may 
he adduced. Fir.st, you are not under 
the necessity of educating them and 
have, therefore, their uninterrupted 
services from the age of eight years. 
The second is. that when you have your 
mill filled with expert hands you are 
not pubipcted to the change which is 
constantly taking place with whites. 



In the Northern States these are incon- 
veniences of no small moment. In Mas- 
sachusetts the laws forbid the employ- 
ment of 'persons under fourteen years 
of age unless the employer can show a 
certificate from a school master, stating 
that the individual has been at school 
three months in the year. The teach- 
ing of new hands and the constant 
change of operatives are evils seriously 
felt; and in the summer season, when it 
is desirable to ramble in the country 
many eastern factories have one-third 
of their machinery standing idle for the 
want of hands. While on this part of 
my subject, I would ask, shall we stop 
at the effort to prove the capacity of 
blacks for manufacturing? Shall we 
pass Unnoticed the thousands of poor, 
ignorant, degraded white people among 
us who, in this land of plenty, live in 
comparative nakedness and starvation? 
Many a one is reared in proud South 
Carolina, from birth to manhood who 
has never passed a month in which he 
has not some part of the time, been 
stinted for meat. Many a mother is 
there who will tell you that her children 
are but scantily supplied with bread 
and much more scantily with meat, and 
if they be clad with comfortable rai- 
ment it is at the expense of their scan- 
ty allowance of food. These may be 
startling statements but they are nev- 
ertheless true, and if not believed in 
Cha-rleston the members of our Legis- 
lature who have traversed the State in 
electioneering campaigns can attest 
their truth. 

It is only necessary to build a manu- 
facturing village of shanties in a 
healthy location in any part of the 
State to have crowds of these poor peo- 
ple around you seeking employment at 
half the compensation given to the op- 
eratives at the North. It is indeed 
painful to be brought in contact with 
such ignorance and degradation; but 
on the other hand it is pleasant to wit- 
ness the change, which soon takes place 
in the condition of those who obtain 
employment. The emaciated, pale- 
faced children soon assume the ap- 
pearance of robust health and their tat- 
tered garments are exchanged for those 
suited to a better condition. If you 
visit their dwellings you will find their 
tables supplied with wholesome food; 
and on the Sabbath, when the females 
turn out in their gay colored gowns, 
you will imagine yourself surrounded 
by groups of city belles. How easy 
would it be for the proprietors of such 
establishments, with only a small share 
of philanthropy to make good use of 
the school fund in ameliorating the 
condition of this class of our po-pulation 



216 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



now but little elevated above the In- 
dian of the forest. The cause of this 
degradation and poverty will hereafter 
be noticed; it is an interesting subject 
and one that ougtit to engage the at- 
tention of every philanthropist and 
Christian. It is, perhaps, not general- 
ly known that theie are twenty-nine 
thousand white persons in this State 
above the age of twelve years, who 
can neither read nor write— this is 
about one in every five of the white 
population. 

That we are behind the age in agri- 
culture, the mechanic arts, industry 
and enterprise, is apparent to all who 
pass through our State; our good city 
of Charleston speaks a language on 
this subject not to be mistaken; she has 
lost 1,000 of her population according to 
'the census of 1840, while her sister cities 
have doubled and quadrupled theirs; 
she has had for thirteen years the ad- 
vantage of theSouth CarolinaRailroad, 
which under ordinary circumstances 
should have doubled the number of her 
population. How does she now stand? 
Precisely where she stood twenty years 
ago, and, but for the two conflagra- 
tions which swept off many of her old 
houses she would present at this mo- 
ment the same appearance that she did 
in 1824. Where is the city in this age 
of improvement except Charleston, that 
a bookbinder or job printer is prohib- 
ited the use of a small steam engine to 
enable him to carry on his business 
with more facility and to cheapen the 
price of those articles that we are pur- 
chasing from other cities more liberal 
to their artisans? and where a carpen- 
ter is not allowed the use of the same 
to turn a circular saw or drive a mor- 
tising chisel to enable him to compete 
with others in supplying us with ready 
made doors, blinds, sashes, shutters, 
etc? Even the boxes in which our mer- 
chandise is packed are made in the city 
of New York by steam power and 
brought to our very doors. The book- 
binder, tanner, currier, hatter, wagon- 
maker, carriage-maker, carpenter, 
turner, tinner, and in fact persons en- 
gaged in every branch of mechanism, 
find steam power indispensable; and 
knowing as we do, that they are unre- 
stricted in its use in other cities why 
are our mechanics forbid to use it in 
this city? There is a strong disposi- 
tion manifested by this class of our 
citizens to elevate and improve their 
several trades and if they are properly 
encouraged there' is no doubt that a 
great change would soon be brought 
about: but the labor of negroes and 
blind horses can never supply the place 
of steam and this power is withheld 



lest the smoke of an engine should dis- 
turb the delicate nerves of an agricul- 
turist; or the noise of the mec-hanics 
hammer should break in upon the 
slumber of a real estate holder, or im- 
porting merchant while he is indulging 
in fanciful dreams or building on pa- 
per the Queen City of the South— the 
paragon of the age. No reflections on 
■the members of the city council are 
here intended, they are no doubt fair- 
ly representing public opinion on this 
subject; some of that body are known 
to be in favor of a modification of these 
restrictions, which certainly are behind 
the age and a reproach to our city. 
Our mechanics ought to rise in their 
strength and procure the signature of 
every liberal minded man to a petition 
to the city authorities asking that they 
may be placed on the same footing in 
this respect as the tradesmen of other 
cities. 

These restrictions are but in charac- 
ter with many other things; and while 
we are on this subject permit me to 
ask whether any other town of the 
same size would have allowed the 
greatest work of the age — the Hamburg 
Piailroad— to come into the city and 
find its terminus in a mud hole scarce- 
ly passable in the winter season for a 
family carriage, much less for a load- 
ed wagon. It cannot be denied that it 
is a disgrace to the city and neck that 
this great work which will immortalize 
its projectors should not have been met 
by a stone road leading from it to our 
wharves. That the hundreds of thou- 
sands of bales of produce and merchan- 
dise that have entered into and depart- 
ed from our city during the last thir- 
teen years should have been dragged 
through the sand and mud of King 
and Meeting streets demonstrates a 
fact about which there can be no mis- 
take — the hand of enterprise is not 
among us. And shall we continue in 
our downward course? Is it not time 
that a warning voice were raised to 
proclaim to the good people of Charles- 
ton that in these times of enterprise 
no city need expect to thrive that does 
not encourage and foster the mechanic 
arts and artisans? It is this class of 
men that gives life, strength and vigor 
to all branches of trade and every de- 
partment of life, and if they were prop- 
erly encouraged our city authorities 
would no longer have to resort to 
dram-shop licenses for revenue; money 
would soon be found to pay her debts 
and pave her streets. Let our city 
council begin by removing the restric- 
tions on the use of the steam engine. 
Who would not rather have an occa- 
sional whiff of smoke from a steam en- 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



217 



gjne than the scent of an odious grog 
fiihop? The former a benefit, the latter 
a curse to the community. So far as 
fii^e risks are concerned, it would be 
safer to have three engines than one 
such magazine of mischief and cor- 
ruption licensed by our city council un- 
der the title of "retailers of ardent 
spirits." 

Need anything be said about the 
amount of capital required for embark- 
ing in these pursuits? lb is only nec- 
essary to revert to the fact that lands 
and negroes pay but 3 per cent, when 
engaged in the culture of cotton, and 
to name the price of 5 and 6 per cent. 
State stocks. Need a word be said as 
to the men who are to carry on these 
enterprises? lb is only necessary to 
point you to 'the bone and sinew thaf 
are leaving our city and State to en- 
rich and populate others. Any one that 
has visited Mississippi and Alabama 
can soon point out the maelstrom that 
has swallowed up so much of the capi- 
tal and enterprise of South Carolina. 

The period is fast approaching in 
South Carolina which shall produce a 
great change in these matters. Many 
persons are now looking to the subject 
of manufactures with intense interest, 
and it is believed that many men of 
capital would at once embark in this 
business could this field for profitable 
enterprise be laid open before our 
wealthy business men of Charleston, 
a hosb of whom can be found with 
nerves that never tire and with as 
much forecast and shrewdness as the 
merchant manufacturers of Boston, 
and these latter gentlemen see that it 
is only necessary that Georgia and the 
two Carolinas shall engage in the man- 
ufacture of coarse cotton fabrics in or- 
der to monopolize the trade in these 
articles. What is to prevent such a re- 
sult? Have we not the raw material 
on the spot, thus saving the freight of 
a double transportation? Is not labor 
cheaper with us than with our North- 
ern brethren? and if we believe that 
they are reaping such golden har^'ests 
what shall prevent our participation in 
the spoils? Let the ball be set in mo- 
tion, then will our miserably poor white 
population at once rise from their ig- 
norance and degradation, and we shall 
no longer hear the complaint that 
planting capital will pay no more than 
3 per cent. The commerce and trade 
of our State w^ould at once receive a 
fresh impulse — our city would become 
a mart for domestic goods, railroad 
stocks would increase in value, our city 
would disrobe herself of her old-fash- 
ioned, rusty, tattered and torn gar- 
ments, to be clad in the fashionable 



clothing of the day, her whitened walla 
and improved suburbs would remind 
the stranger as he passed through, 
that the hand of industry and enter- 
prise was at work among us. Our re- 
tired merchants would find it no longer 
necessary or desirable to invest their 
capital or look for rural retirement in 
other States. They would find that we 
have in our up-country within a few 
hours ride of Charleston all the advan- 
tages that we can desire for such pur- 
poses; and besides spending our money 
among ourselves, they would also find 
that there is no better country for the 
profitable employment of capital or ru- 
ral retirement than in our own State. 



CHAPTER VI. 

In New England there are two dis- 
tinct systems of snanufacturimg pur- 
sued. The Massachusetts and New 
Hampshire establishments are on an 
extensive scale and are almost univer- 
sally owned by joint stock companies, 
composed principally of the merchants 
of Boston. They are careful to employ 
the best talents the country affords, and 
have matters sosystematicalliyarrang'ed 
that (as will be hereafter shown) there 
is no possibility of failure, even to a 
joint stock company, unless the busi- 
ness becomes so profitless as to ruin the 
whole countriy. Mills owned, or under 
the influence of Boston capitalists— such 
as those in Cabotville, Chickopee, Wal- 
tham, Lowell, Nashua, Jackson, Man- 
chester and other places— generally 
contain about 6,000 spindles each, some 
10,000, and recently others are being 
erected to contain 20,000 and 25,000. 
Each company has an agent whose of- 
fice is in Boston, and another at the 
factory; the latter has direct charge of 
the mill or mills, as the case may be — 
for there are frequently two, three and 
even four factories owned by the same 
company and in the same enclosure. 
i:^ach factorjv has an overseer for the 
carding department, who, generally 
speaking, is skilled in this department 
only; also a spinner, a dresser, a weav- 
er and a machinist. These men have no 
charge except their pai'ticular depart- 
ments; they hire their own hands, (be- 
ing under certain restrictions), make 
certain repairs and direct others to be 
made hy the machinist, and are respon- 
sible to the agent for the manufacture 
at a given number mills per pound. 
For instance, every Saturday night the 
agent receives a report showing the 
number of pounds of raw cotton passed 
into the carding room and the number 
of pounds of cloth taken from theweav- 
iing room— the carder shows by his pny 



218 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



list that he has carded the same for 6 
mills per pound— the spinner that 
he has spun it for 5 mills per pound— 
the dresser that he has warped, beamed 
and dressed it for three mills and the 
weaver that it has been woven for 8 
mills, and baled for one mill per pound. 
At the end of the month the a&ent at 
the factory makes out a statement for 
the ag-ecit im Boston, showing the nura- 
ber of hands employed at the mill, male 
and female, the average wages paid, the 
number of pounds of raw cotton used, 
the number of yards and pounds of 
cloth produced and forwai'deu to their 
commission merchant, and the eutire 
cost of cnanufacturing and delivering 
the cloth at Bostom, giving the items as 
above stated. These statements from 
the various establishments are com- 
pared in Boston; in fact, the proprietors 
clut) together, compile them and place 
a book in the hands of each agent for 
reference, so that they are constantliy 
apprised of what others are doing; and 
each carder, spinner or weaver knows 
the minimutn cost at which his par- 
ticular department has been accom- 
plished. The general result proves to 
the company the fitness of their agent. 
The cheapness with which any partic- 
ular department is performed is a test 
of the skill and industry of the subal- 
tern in charge of the same. Knowing 
the cost of the raw material, the quan- 
tit<y of waste, the precise cost of pro- 
ducing cloth, and its worth in the cnar- 
ket, the manufacturers are at once 
placed in a position not to sink money 
unless they choose to do so in times of 
great embarrassment, a; a matter of 
charity to their hands. These Boston 
establishments (for so I may call them) 
are all very sicnilar. The dead spindle 
for warp, as well as for filling, is uni- 
versal; and each factory is erected for 
a particular purpose, and confined ex- 
clusively to it. For instance, some mills 
have their machineriy adapted to the 
manufacture of Osnaburgs and can 
make nothing else, some are adapted 
to, and are run exclusively on brown 
sheetings 87 inches wide, some on % 
sheeting, some on drillings and others 
on print cloths. They are run for years 
on the same thing, and as the propri- 
etors never think of changing, the con- 
Bequence is that their hands having 
but one operation to perfonm become so 
completely drilled in it that theiy are 
run at a speed incredible to one who 
has never witnessed it. 

In Rhode Island things are very dif- 
ferent. Providence is the centre of ra- 
diation for tnanufactuiing all look to 
her as the mother of manufactures, as 
the seat of knowledge in this art. In 



this State, although there are many 
joint stock companies yet individual es- 
tablishments predominate. There are 
many large establishcnents owned by 
persons reared behind the spinning- 
jenney, others owned by capitalists and 
rented to practical manufacturers. 
Maniy mills fitted with water wheels 
are built by persons owning water 
power and rented to others owning ma- 
chinery. Every pound of water power 
is alreadiy employed, steam power is 
getting into use, and manufacturing 
may be said to be the business of 
Rhode Island. Wages are lower here 
than in Massachusetts and economy is 
cnore generally practiced. They make 
fine goods and add a far greater value 
to each pound of cotton, realizing in 
quality, by skill and close application 
what the Massachusetts people do in 
quantity, biy their coarse fabrics. In 
Rhode Island English machinery is of- 
ten used, the live spindle for warp and 
the mule spindle for filling, this being 
doubtless the best kind of machinery 
for fine goods and skillful operatives; 
but it is evident that the Massachu- 
setts machinery is the sort that should 
be introduced among us, and that the 
system pursued in that State is the one 
best adapted to our habits and institu- 
tions. Cotton manufacturing will not 
probably be speedily introdtieed into 
this State unless our business men of 
capital take hoid of it. Merchants and 
retired men of capital imay erect fac- 
tories and work them with white hands 
or purchase blacks for the purpose. Our 
wealthy planters may engage in the 
business and turn their young negroes 
in for workers, but it will be long be- 
fore the Southern States shall have a 
set of manufacturers similar to those 
in Rhode Island; they must grow up 
among us, as engine runners and rail- 
road engineers have done. 

I will now give a statecnent of the 
cost of manufacturing in Massachu- 
setts; which being so nearljy the same 
throughout the whole country, it will 
be necessary only to name one or two 
establishments to form a correct esti- 
mate of the whole; and it is proper to 
seledt such as are making the kind of 
goods that is desirable to introduce 
into this State. I will therefore notice 
four mills in Lowell, belonging to one 
company, and in the same enclosure, 
under one agent. They contain each 
7,168 spindles and 216 looms; they are 
constructed to spin Nos. 12 and 14 (yarn, 
and to weave 3 (-inch sheetings, 3 20-100 
yards to the pound, % sheetings 4 55-100 
yards to the pound and drilling 2 85-100 
yards to the pound. The two mills en- 
gaged In making 37-inch sheetings 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



219 



turned out for the six months ending 
30th June last, say mill No. 2 produced 
in the same time 571,869 pounds, beimg 
1,820,776 yards. The othef two mills 
produced similar results. The cost per 
pound for the labor of manufacturing 
in the two mills was as follows: 

MILL NO. 1. 

For carding 6 75-100 mills 

For spinning 7 46-100 mills 

For dressing 4 65-100 mills 

For weaving and baling.1,3 05-100 mills 

Total cost 3,119-100 mills 

MILL NO. 2. 

For cardimg 6 18-100 cnills 

For spimiiing 7 51-100 mills 

For dressing 4-71-100 mills 

For weaving and baling. 1,2 73-100 mills 

Total cost 3,1 13-100 mills 

It will, by this statement, be per- 
ceived that the cost for the manufac- 
ture of this article (the wholesale price 
of whicti, at the present time, in this 
market is 7 cents per yard) is but 3 
cents 1 mill and a fraction per pound. 

Let us now suppose the operation to 
be performed in this State. The raw 
material would cost 5 cents, allow 10 
per cent, for the waste and we have for 
the cost of the raw material 5 cents 5 
mills; add to this 3 cents 1 mill and we 
have 8 cents 6 mills as the entire cost 
of one pound of cloth, 3 20-100 yards to 
the pound, whicti at 7 cents per yard 
gives 22 cents 4 mills as the value per 
pound of the cloth manufactured. The 
quantity of cloth turned out by the two 
mills in six months was as follows: 
1,133,431 pounds at 
22 cents 4 mills 

Gives $253,884 50 

Cost of raw mate- 
rial $61,837 71 

Cost of labor in the 

mill 35,205 81 

■ 97,843 52 

Gross profit $156,840 98 

From the above result it appears that 
the eciormous sum of $156,840.98 would 
be left to pay the outdoor expenses of 
two mills for six monttis, the balance 
being net profit to the owners. 

In my calculations showing the large 
gross profits accruing to the Lowell 
companies, It must not be supposed 
that these companies are dividing such 
large amounts as net gains to their 
stockholders. It is a fact clear enough 
to any one, that the difference between 
the cost of the raw material and the 
price of goods manufactured is made 
to the community in which the opera- 



tion is performed; yet, lest those dis- 
posed to embark tSieir capital in such 
pursuits should be deceived by the 
statement, I will state the average 
profits of the Lowell companies from 
the beginning of their existence to the 
present time with this remark that the 
Massachusetts company, from some 
cause or other, (probably the embar- 
rassed state of trade from the year 1840 
to fhe latter part of 1843), were not in 
haste to put their machinery in opera- 
tion, a portion of which was not worked 
until May, June and July last, and some 
portion even as late as the middle of 
July had nob yet been started. 

While speaking of the net gains of 
the Lowell manufacturers we must not 
be unmindful that the town of Lowell 
manufactures about 66,313 bales of cot- 
ton, 345 pounds to the bale and adds 
(by simply spinning and weaving) 
about 20 cents to the value of each 
pound, making a gain to that place and 
its vicinity of upwards of $4,000,000; a 
sum equal to one-third of tihe capital 
invested in this branch of cotton manu- 
facturing in that place, and equal in 
value to the entire crop of this Stale. 

I will now exhibit a statement of an- 
other mill in Lowell engaged in making 
Osnaburgs, the machinery being adapt- 
ed to this particular article, and mak- 
ing nothing else. This mill contains 64 
carding machines, 4,864 spindles and 
152 looms. It is worked by 174 hands 
and spins No. 4% yarn. It turned out 
in the six months ending 30th June last, 
796,900 pounds of clolth, two yards per 
pound, making 1,598,800 yards of Osna- 
burgs. Tihe cost for manufacturing 
which, in the mill was as follows: 

For carding 3 94-100 mills 

For spinning 4 48-100 mills 

For dressing 3 22-100 mills 

For weaving 8 15-100 mills 

For baling, etc 88-100 mills 



2,2 67-100 mills 
It will thus be perceived that the en- 
tire cost for the labor employed in mak- 
ing this article is 2 cents 2 67-100 mills 
per pound. The cofiton that is worked 
into these goods being very inferior, is 
worth in this market not over 4 cents 
per pound, therefore tSie value of the 
raw material for this establishment, 
adding 12% per cent, for waste, say 
896.512 pounds of raw cotton at 4 cents 
being $35,860.48-100, and the cost for 
manufacturing the same at 2 cents 
2 67-100 mills per pound of cloth, is $17,- 
933.75-100; while the market value oi 
the same, say 1,593,800 yards at 9 cents 
per yard is $143,842, leaving a balance of 
$90,047.77-100 to pay outdoor expenses 



220 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



such as commissions, freight, oil, starch, 
insurance, interest on capital, etc. Gen- 
erally speaking, all expenses after pay- 
ing operativeis, (interest on capital in- 
cluded) are covered by 1/2 to 1 cent per 
yard, according to the quantity of the 
clotih turned out. These are not mere 
speculations but actual results that can 
be vouched for; they present a fact that 
cannot but strike a cotton planter with 
great force, viz.: that 174 hands in 
twelve months convert 4,329 bales of 
cotton, 345 pounds to the bale, into 
cloth— about 24% bales to the hand; 
thus adding over $40 to the value of 
eacfa bale. , ,. , 

Statements of other esbablishments 
in Cabotville, Fall River, Nashua and 
Manchester are at hand, but it is not 
necessary to add them as the results 
are similar. The last mentioned place, 
Manchester, in New Hampshire, is lo- 
cated on the Merrirnac river, at the 
Amoskeag Falls. The first manufac- 
turing establishment was built at this 
place in the year 1838 in the woods; it 
now has Ave— the three Stark mills and 
two belonging to the Amoskeag Com- 
pany. These five mills contain 37,720 
spindles and 1,106 looms. Two new mill's 
are being erected, one to contain 20,000 
spindles and 600 looms the other 25,000 
spindles. The result of establishing 
these factories is that a flourishing 
town which now contains 7,000 inhabi- 
tants has grown up in the woods. It is 
supposed that the two mills now erect- 
ing, together with those already in op- 
eration, will have the effect of doubling 
the population in two years and in all 
probability t^iis town in ten years will 
exceed that of Lowell both in wealth 
and poDulation. 

I might mention many other places 
that have risen rapidly from the manu- 
facture of coarse cotton fabrics, a busi- 
ness that belongs legitimately to us at 
the South. At the risk of being con- 
sidered tiresome, I will name one more 
The town of Newburyport, Mass., was 
a thriving place and one of considera- 
ble trade, but from various causes it 
declined. Its trade %iad been absorbed 
by Boston and other places, so that its 
shipping interests had deserted it and 
its wharves were desolate and value- 
less, town property had become worth- 
less and everything about it seemed 
going to ruin. A few of its most enter- 
prising property holders determined to 
make an effort to resuscitate it by es- 
tablishing manufactures, and having 
no water power they resorted to steam. 
It acted like a charm. The t^iree or 
four establishments put in operation 
have all done well and produced a new 



state of things. The wharves are now 
crowded with shipping, the sound of 
the hammer is heard in every direction, 
new houses are being erected and old 
ones ihave been remodeled, real estate 
has not only advanced to its original 
value, hut doubled and puadrupled it; 
and so it would be with Charleston, 
Augusta, Columbia and other places 
at the South. 



CHAPTER VII. 

I will now undertake to show the 
cause of failure in cotton tspinning, in 
t^his State, and the measures that must 
be adopted to prevent similar results 
hereafter. In these efforts, I trust ib 
will be proved that no fair experiment 
or even an approach to it, has yet been 
made. The Saluda and Vaucluse Man- 
ufacturing Companies standing fore- 
most, shall be first noticed. 

These companies were formed in the 
year 1833, and there oan be no doubt 
that they were stimulated to action by 
the best and most patriotic motives; 
but, however praiseworthy the motives, 
the result has been the cause of more 
harm to South Carolina than can be re- 
paired for many years to come. The 
failure of these companies is brought 
to the view of every one who turns his 
attention to the subject, and the effect 
is to dampen ardor and wither all such 
enterprises in the bud. These two es- 
tablishments stand like rocks in the 
ocean to warn the mariner of the ap- 
proach of danger; but it is hoped that 
on nearing the objects they will be 
found to be mere delusions. 

The original proprietors of the Saluda 
mill were a company formed with the 
expectation of running 10,000 spindles, 
to make osnaburgs, shirtings, drills, 
muslins, fine yarn, coarse yarn, in fact 
everything that might be desirable to 
fill the shelves of a Columbia merchant. 
They seemed not to anticipate the ne- 
cessity of looking to any other market 
for the sale of their goods. They em- 
ployed a man wholly ignorant of such 
matters, (one who did not even know 
the difference between a throstle and 
mule spindle), to lay out the establish- 
ment and get up the machinery, which 
was made by Mr. Alfred Jinks, of 
Bridesburg, near Philadelphia. It is 
fine machinery, but better adapted for 
making muslins than osnaburgs. This 
machinery is so arranged as to render 
it impracticable to adapt it to the Mas- 
sachusetts system, and carmot, without 
many alterations and additions, be made 
to turn off, with a given number of 
Hands, more than one-third the quanti- 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



221 



ty stated as the product of the Lowell 
mills— certainly not more than one-half 
with the very best management. T^he 
different gentlemen who have been in- 
terested in this establishment have at- 
tributed its want of success to the bad 
management of agents; but the secret 
lies beyond the reach of overseers and 
until many dollars are expended in new, 
or in altering the present macSiinery — ' 
and a new system both as to the pro- 
duction and sale of their goods, is 
•adopted — they may not expect to real- 
ize profit. 

Now, in the outset, if this company 
(composed of gentlemen of sufficient in- 
telligence to carry on any enterprise), 
had gone to Boston for advice they 
would have been warned against the 
course they pursued, as being one t^at 
must inevitably lead to failure. Tliey 
would have been advised to undertake 
the making of but one article, either 
osnaburgs or coarse sheeting; 'to get all 
their machinery of the same description 
adapted to the particular article they 
proposed making; to nail their colors 
to the mast, taking it for better or for 
worse; to hire a carder, spinner, dresser, 
weaver, and an active and skillful 
young man as an overseer — taking the 
best talents that Massachusetts could 
afford. These men get from $1.50 'to $2 
per day and by adding 25 or 50 cents 
more they would have offered induce- 
ments that would have commanded the 
very best. They should tiave employed 
a merchant in Columbia to purchase 
their cotton and receive their goods 
who. after supplying the Columbia 
market should have shipped the bal- 
ance to Cftiarleston where there should 
have been one agent. The merchant at 
Columbia should have been made to 
clear his shelves of all similar goods 
and not to offer them for sale in broken 
packages — to sell in Columbia quanti- 
ties not less than five bales at the 
Charleston prices — to keep a set of books 
and make monthly exhibits to the 
stockholders, showing the number of 
pounds of cotton sent to the mill and 
the number of yards and pounds of 
cloth returned. Had this system been 
pursued, it would have been only neces- 
sary to keep up a correspondence with 
the Lowell and other companies, re- 
ceiving monthly statements to be com- 
pared with their own in order to know 
at all times whether the mill was turn- 
ing out its proper quantity. Every 
member of the company -n-ould soon 
have become so well acquainted with 
factory details as to enable him to judge 
what quantity of cloth a given number 
of spindles ought to turn out and the 



proof would, at all times be at hand, 
whether the agent was doing his duty 
or not. There would then have been no 
chance for leaks. The books of the Co- 
lumbia agent would have shown wheth- 
er a sufficient number of pounds cloth 
had been returned for a given quantity 
of cotton, after making a reasonable 
allowance for waste. The Charleston 
agent should have had entire control 
of prices. If a discreet merchant he 
would not have allowed the goods to ac- 
cumulate, nor would he by forced salea 
have brought an undue pressure on 
this market; the prices in which do not 
now, but should always range up to the 
New York market. It should have been 
this merchant's province to find mar- 
kets for the goods in New York, Phila- 
delphia, Baltimore, New Orleans, Mo- 
bile and other places. 

Now, had all this been done, there 
can be no doubt as to the result. This 
company instead of wasting its capital 
would have made immense sums of 
money, and in all human probability, 
their success would have brought into 
existence by this time, in the immedi- 
ate vicinity of Columbia ten such estab- 
lishments as those described in Lowell 
and leaving out of view the profits 
which would have accrued to the own- 
ers, (for it matters not whether they be 
gainers or not), the difference between 
the cost of raw material and the sum 
received for the sale of the manufac- 
tured article, would have been a clear 
gain to the people of Columbia and its 
neighborhood. The difference between 
the value of the raw material here and 
of the goods produced by the three mills 
spoken of in Lowell for the six months 
ending 30th June last, would be $294,064 
or $596,128 per annum. Ten such mills 
producing similar results would yield to 
the community in which they were lo- 
cated the sum of $1,897,093. This would 
have doubled the population of Colum- 
bia. Many an enterprise never dreamed 
of before would have had its birth and 
been matured by this time within her 
limits. Artisans from all parts of the 
world would have found their way to 
this delightful spot and her suburbs 
would now be ringing with the busy 
hum of work shops, while her streets 
would now show the marks of an in- 
creased trade and she would not only 
be the capital but the pride of our State. 

I will now proceed to give a history 
of the Vaucluse Manufacturing Com- 
pany, and of its manufacturing estab- 
lishment, erected in the year 1833. This 
company was no doubt stimulated to 
action by the disposition that pervaded 
this State about that time for manu- 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



facturing, taring^ing into existence the 
Marlboro, De Kalb, SaludQ, and two or 
tliree smaller mills, and it is truly un- 
fortunate for this State that such mis- 
takes should have been made. 

Gen. McDufRe and our worthy fellow- 
citizen, the Hon. Mitchel King, were 
two of the principal stockholders in the 
Vaucluse Company. One would sup- 
pose that such men, engaging in a new 
enterprise, would have given 'the sub- 
ject some sort of investig>ation. The 
position that these gentlemen occupy in 
the State, as to fortune and other things, 
is a proof of their ability and eminent 
success in such enterprises as have en- 
gaged their attention; but unfortunate- 
ly for them, in this instance, they only 
look across the waters at the promised 
land — they fitted out their bark for the 
voiyage but went to sleep at the helm. 

This company obtained a charter 
from the Legislature and organized 
themselves by electing a president and 
five directors. They wrote to Paterson, 
N. J., for machinery suited to the man- 
ufacture of cotton and wool, fine and 
coarse cloth, assorted j^arns, etc., thus 
as will be perceived, splitting on the 
same rock which wrecked the Saluda 
Company. They committed the same 
error of not looking beyond the supply 
of the immediate neighborhood and so 
complicated their machinery as to ren- 
der it impossible for it to produce profit, 
except by the nicest and most skillful 
management. The present proprietors 
of this establishment have sold the 
woolen machinery and are remodeling 
the balance, but it will have to receive 
many additions in new machinery be- 
fore it will be capable, with the best 
management, of turning out the quan- 
tity, per hand, that 't»ie Massachusetts 
mills do. 

• The strangest parb of the story re- 
mains yet to be told. As above stated, 
this company elected a president and 
five directors to manage their affairs. 
This board ordered the machinery to be 
made and sent out; appointed an agent 
to superintend the erection of a suita- 
ble building for it and houses for the 
operatives. Will the fact be credited 
that this board of directors never had 
a meeting after its first organization, 
not even to receive the building from 
the contractor's hands? The factory 
ran thus neglected by those appointed 
to look after its affairs, for two years 
and six months and is it surprising that 
instead of making money, they should 
have incurred a debt of $6,000? Fortu- 
nately for the company an individual 
undertook to purchase some of the 
shares, and after possessing himself of 



a number sufficient to excite some inter- 
est he looked into matters and found 
the mill in charge of an ignorant En- 
glishman who received $5 per day. He 
knew nothing of the business and as 
was afterwards proved, had never be- 
fore had charge, even of a single de- 
partment in a mill. He was, in fact, 
only a common operative with neither 
truth nor honesty in him. This gentle- 
man immediately determined to ap- 
prize the company of their real condi- 
tion. It was with the greatest diflicul- 
ty that a sufficient number of the stock- 
holders could be brought together to 
form a quorum in order that measures 
of relief might be taken; and but for 
the debt of $6,000, which was about to 
go into judgment, it is very question- 
able whether a meeting could have been 
obtained. The result of this meeting 
was that the property was offered for 
sale. The gentleman alluded to above 
who had purchased into the company 
took up his abode at the factory as a 
summer residence, discharged the En- 
glishman overseer and took charge of 
the establishment in person, made the 
factory turn out double its former pro- 
duct, purchased the cotton and other 
supplies, sold the goods, etc., and in 
eight months previous to the sale made 
a net sum for the owners of about $11,- 
000. This paid the debt and left a sur- 
plus of $5,000 and but for this circum- 
stance the establishment would have 
sold for a mere song. The shares, fifty- 
four and a half in number, cost origi- 
nally $1,000 each. The sale produced 
about $750 per share. So ended the 
Vaucluse Manufacturing Company, and 
it is a matter of surprise that the stock- 
holders did not sink their entire capi- 
tal. 

This company was followed by an in- 
dividual owner, x\-ho it is said realized 
profit; but his affairs were so compli- 
cated and embarrassed that the mill re- 
ceived but little of his attention and 
being one of the kind, as before stated, 
which requires the strictest attention it 
corld not be expected to flourish. Its 
F;ze forbids its being brought under the 
same system and producing similar re- 
sults as the Massachusetts mills, and 
however profitable it may be to its pres- 
ent owners it can never be considered 
a fair test of what cotton manufactur- 
ing will be when properly introducecj in 
this State. 

Xow. when we take all things into 
consideration it is really a matter of 
surprise that we have not long since 
made cottoh manufacturing one of our 
leading occupations. When the Boston 
merchants embarked in it they were as 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



223 



ig-norant of it as we now are, while the 
Rfriode Island people were eminently- 
skilled in it; but this did not deter the 
former, when driven from their favor- 
ite occupation from engaging in it. 
These gentlemen, not unlike our mer- 
chants and capitalists, and very simi- 
lar to our intelligent cotton planters, 
embarked immediately in manufactures 
which have indeed yielded them golden 
harvests. They are not the men to take 
off fheir gloves and perform manual 
manipulations, but they look on with 
hands in their pockets, precisely as a 
cotton planter would do, and depend on 
the skill of an intelligent overseer to 
produce good practical results. It cer- 
tainly has not been their economy that 
has caused them to amass great wealth. 
Their agents at the mills or overseers, 
as we would call fhem, reside in fine 
houses and wear silk g'loves. Their sit- 
uations are similar to those of our bank 
presidents in Charleston; they have 
fine offices and clerks to attend to their 
book-keeping; and let me here iniform 
you that in the ten corporations in 
Lowell not one of the agents is a prac- 
tical manufacturer, that is, a man 
brought up behind the spinning- ma- 
chine. Six out of the ten are lawyers; 
they are, however, shrewd business 
men who look well to hiring- good sub- 
alterns and see that the results of the 
factory show that t^hey not only under- 
stand but perform their business. They 
pay immense sums for water power. It 
would seem that economy was no part 
of the system of Boston manufacturers, 
for go where you may you will find 
that they have indulged their fancy, by 
lajnng out immense sums of money in 
the erection of elegant and ornamental 
edifices for t4ieir machinery and in ar- 
ranging their g-rounds. They have act. 
ually built palaces for their overseers; 
and the boarding houses for the accom- 
modation of their operatives are what 
we in Charleston would call fine houses, 
not inferior in quality and appearance 
to the best buildings in tfte newly built 
portions of our city. I do not certainly 
exagg-erate when I say that the most 
indifferent overseer's house in Lowell, 
at least such as I saw, cost more than 
the whole village of Vaucluse, contain- 
ing upwards of 200 inhabitants includ- 
ing a comfortable dwelling recently 
built as a residence for one of its own- 
ers; and more money than all thetiouses 
which serve to accommodate the oper- 
atives of the Saluda factory. 

Not one-fourth of the large capital 
represented in the table is invested in 
machinery. A large portion has been 
expended in the purcase of water power 
and in erecting expensive edifices for 



their machinery, and houses for their 
overseers and operatives. I am certain- 
ly not much wide of the mark in stat- 
ing that the houses belong-ing to one of 
these companies and used by their 
agents and operatives are quite as ele- 
gant—fully as costly, and afford a3 
much room as all the buildings on both 
sides of King street, between Market 
and Hasel streets; and it must be re- 
marked that, much to their credit, they 
have made large contributions to the 
building of churcihes and the endow- 
ment of other public institutions. 

When we view all these facts, and 
recollect that we have water power in 
any quantity in healthy portions CKf our 
State wihich can be purchased for a tri- 
fle, that we have the cheapest country 
on the face of the globe to live in, (for 
provisions are as cheap in South Caro- 
lina as in Prussia, the cheapest portion 
of Europe,) adding to this our mild cli- 
mate, making it even cheaper to live 
ihere than in Prussia, that the raw ma- 
terial can be had from 1 to 1% centa 
cheaper in the interior of this State 
than in the manufacturing towns of the 
North, and that we possess the cheapest 
steadiest and most easily controlled la- 
bor to be found in the United States; 
what, let me ask, is to prevent our suc- 
cess? In addition to all these facts, 
when it is borne in mind that the Bos- 
ton manufacturers pay their operatives 
$3.79 per week, (this is the averag-e 
wag-es paid in Lowell which governs all 
the other places in Massachusetts) and 
that while paying- these hig-h wag-ea 
they convert cotton into cloth at a cost 
of from 2% to 3 cents per pound, turn- 
ing out in coarse fabrics 24% bales to 
the hand (there is no fiction about this,) 
and it would seem that our conclusions 
must be irresistible. In my next chap- 
ter I shall consider the subject of the 
manufacturing of cotton bagging as a 
part of the system of domestic industry 
in South Carolina. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

I will now make a few remarks on the 
manufacture of bagging, which seems 
to be the first article that strikes the 
mind of a Southern man when he tuma 
his attention to the subject of manufac- 
turing. All seem to think that it would 
be a very lucrative business and one 
that should engage the attention of 
Southern men. The question is every 
day asked, why are not our Southern 
factories making this article? In it 
there can be no mistake. The cheap- 
ness of the raw material is a complete 



224 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



protection against foreign competition, 
and this togethe'- witti our ciieap lalDor 
will be a fortress of defence to us, while 
we continue to make the coarse fabrics 
t§iat require no finish and but libtle 
skill in theSr manufacture; especially if 
we follow the rule already laid down, of 
sticking to one thing at a time. He 
■who manufactures an axe handle, even 
if he employ fifty men in the operation, 
(should 'the world afford him a market 
large enough,) will, by sticking to this 
one thing, attain suc'h perfection in the 
shape and speed in the manufacture <as 
to obtain a remunerating price in every 
country where the commodity is used. 
We mus't manufacture such articles as 
require a large quantity of good, sound 
raw material, about which there can be 
no decep'tlon practiced. 

We need not expect in the outset of 
manuifacturinig to compete v-lth the 
Northern people in s^hapes and colors. 
We frequently hear complaints from 
Southern manufacturers engaged in 
making woolens that they cannot sell 
their honestly made Linseys in compe- 
tition with the trash that is brought out 
here and sold under tfte name of Ker- 
seys and Linseys; the warp of which is 
composed of the most inferior co'tton 
thread and the filling of greasy cotton 
waste, being from its short staple and 
dirt, wholly unfit for anything else. 
This is dyed and mixed with refuse 
wool, such as clot^ shearings, etc., and 
'there is bub little doubt that in many 
instances the wool does not constitute 
1-20 of the fabric. As an evidence of 
our gullibility many persons among us 
are simple enough to do their negroes 
the injustice of clothing them in this 
trash, while i't would be far ctheaper for 
the owner -and better for the slave to 
have a good sound article made entirely 
of cotton. The frauds which are con- 
tinually practiced upon us should teach 
us a lesson, warning us to encourage a 
system which shall render us independ- 
ent of foreigners for sucti articles. If 
we have nob the men now among us 
who can work mixtures, shapes and col- 
ors, they will soon make their appear- 
ance when we shall have get fairly 
started in the manufacture of cotton; 
and when manufacturing capital be- 
comes popular for investments in South 
Carolina, t^iis class of men will be found 
emigrating to our State. 

Heretofore cotton has been so costly 
a staple that its price forbade the idea 
of its taking the place of hemp in the 
manufacture of bagging; consequently 
there never yet has been any machinery 
made with the express intention of 
m.anufacturing it; recently, however, it 
has become a subject of great interesb 



and Sias elicited much attention in Low- 
ell and the other manufacturing towns 
at the North. Our Northern friends 
would probably engage in the manufac- 
ture of this article but for the fact that 
the Southern States have turned their 
attention to ftie making of coarse cotton 
fabrics and they, being fully aware of 
our advantages, well know that the 
first attempt on our part would sup- 
plant them in this article, as we have 
done in that of Osnaburgs. For, be it 
remembered, that deflcienb as our 
Southern factories are in the essentials 
for successful competition, they have 
notwithstanding, long since driven out 
of tihis market the article of Nor'thern 
Osnaburgs. I think I may venture the 
assertion, that there has not been a bale 
of such goods imported into Charleston 
from the North, for the last two years; 
and were it not that we are so deficient 
in en.tei*prise it would be just as ab- 
surd for the people of the North to un- 
dertake this species of manufacture as 
it would be to import hemp to compete 
with Kentucky and other places in the 
manufacture of bagging. 

The facility with which cotton can be 
worked by machinery makes it much 
easier to ihandle than hemp, and it will 
certainly cost much less to manufac- 
ture it. It has already been shown that 
cotton cloth, weighing half a pound to 
the yard, is manufactured for 2% cents 
per pound, and there is no doubt in the 
mind of the writer that bagging weigh- 
ing from 1% to 2 pounds per yard could 
be made witSihalf the labor and expense, 
that is, for 1 cent por pound; and that 
upwards of 44 bales to the hand might 
be converted into bagging per annum. 
The machinery requisite for this species 
of manufacture is of the simplest kind, 
and certainly susceptible of being 
worked by negroes. The manufacture 
of Kentucky bagging is performed by 
negro hand labor, no machinery having 
ever been successfully applied to it. 
T^e carding machine now in use in cot- 
ton factories would answer for the first 
part of the process of making cotton 
bagging. The looms, which should be 
wider, would not differ much in other 
respects fro'm the ordinary Osnaburgs 
looms and should turn out, if well man- 
aged, from 100 to 125 yards each per 
day. 

Having no knowledge of the cost of 
producing hemp bagging in otSier coun- 
tries, I shall confine my remarks to our 
immediate competitor, Kentucky. Hemp 
is an article that has fiuctua'ted in price 
almost as much as cotton — ^the range 
being from $3 to $11 per cwt. It kept 
pretty steadily, however, for many years 
previous to 1840, at an average of $5, 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



225 



since then ab $4. The manufacture of it 
into bagrging is, as before stated, per- 
formed by hand, and although great im- 
piovements have been made in. t^^e 
mode of handling it, yet it is still a tedi- 
ous operation, requiring on an average 
5 hands to each loom — three men and 
two boys. The hackling, etc., being 
heavy work, requires able-bodied, active 
men. In well managed factories the 
hands are so tasked as to produce, in 
the summer season 400 yards per week 
to the loom, and in the winter season 
300 yards. I am now speaking of tihe 
best managed establishments at this 
time. It is not lo'ng since when 12% 
•cents was considered the worth of man- 
ufacturing a yard of hemp bagging, it 
is now reduced to 5 cents. 

I will now proceed to compare the 
cost of cotton with hemp and g^ive the 
arguments for and against the manu- 
facture of cotton bagging. It is believed 
that it will be necessary to make the 
cotton article weigSi 2 pounds to the 
yard; but to make the comparison more 
easily understood, we will suppose them 
both to weigh 1% pounds to the yard. 
It must be remembered that cotton is 
purchased by the net 100 pounds, while 
hemp is bought by the gross 112 pounds, 
the 12 pounds being sufficient to cover 
the waste in manufacturing; so that for 
each pound and three quarters of raw 
hemp we have one yard of bagging, 
which after adding 5 cents for the labor 
of manufacture costs 12 cents. Now 
for the cotton article; and bear in mind 
that the cheaper the raw material the 
more waste t^ere is, and that coarse 
goods cause more waste than fine ones. 
Let us suppt)se the cotton to cost 4% 
-cents, to which add the loss in manu- 
facture, (say 15 per cent.) and we shall 
have for the cost of the raw material 
in a yard of bagging weighing 1% 
pounds 8 cents 5.50-100 mills, or $8.55 for 
each hundred yards; add to this 2 cents 
— t%ie cost of manufacturing, and we 
have a yard of bagging costing 10 cents 
5.50-100 mills to the manufacturer. Ad- 
mitting hemp and cotton to be of equal 
value and allowing the Kentucky manu- 
facturer to realize 2 cents per yard as 
his profit, it will be perceived that the 
hemp article comes Into the hands of 
'the wholesale merchant at 14 cents; 
t*ius g-iving to the manufacturer of the 
cotton article a profit of 3.45-100 cents 
per yard. T'his would answer very well 
if things remained just as they now- are, 
but we must take into consideration the 
adverse changes that may take place. 
"We must also bear in mind that the cot- 
ton Worked into bagging must undergo 
the same preparation that it does for 
■ other kinds of cloth, and that only one 



step beyond spinning it into bagging 
yarn we have it into thread — a mer- 
chantable ai^ti'Cle in all parts of the 
world — fit for making any kind of clo'th 
and which has never sold in this coun- 
try for less than 13l^ cents per pound, 
then considerably below the prices quot- 
ed in Manchester. If we double the 
amount and cost of labor we put the 
raw material into a fabric that is con- 
sumed by the whole human family, the 
the demand being of such extent as to 
have no limit. While we feel ijerfectly 
secure from competition in the cheap- 
ness of the raw material in manufac- 
turing cotton bagging le't us not be 
unmindful of other circumstances, 
which, although they cannot be brought 
to bear against other branches of cot- 
ton manufacturing, may prove ruinous 
in this. 

The first is, that an advance of 2 
cents per pound in cotton, wuithout a 
proportionate rise in bagging, would 
take from the manufacturer his whole 
profit. The second is quite as formida- 
ble. I mean the competition of Ken- 
tucky, where the improvements in cul- 
tivation would enable them to raise 
hemp at 3 cents per pound, which 
would pay as well as cotton at 6 cents. 
Moreover, it is 'the opinion ot those en- 
gaged in the manufacture of hemp bag- 
ging, that before they w^ould give up 
the business the cost of manufacture 
would be reduced to 3 cents per yard, 
so that the bagging may be furnished 
to the manufacturer at 8% cents per 
yard. Nor is this all. When we con- 
sider the limited quantity of bagging 
required for the supply of the United 
States, we may justly have apprehen- 
sions of danger from competition among 
ourselves. Taking the crop of this 
country at 2,500,000 bales, and allowing 
5 yards of oloth for each bale, it would 
require but 12,500,000 yards per annum 
to supply the whole United States, and 
this number of yards does not equal the 
production of several of the manufac- 
turing companies in Massachusetts. 
There are two establishments in Lowell 
that turn out, each, upwards of 13,000,- 
000 yards of cloth per annum. The es- 
tablishment alluded to in a former chap- 
ter having four mills in one enclosure, 
judging from the product from January 
to July and taking cotton at its value 
here, would yield a gross profit of $624,- 
184, on an expenditure for raw material 
and labor of $391,374, while the gross 
profit on all the bagging used in the 
United States at 3.45-100 cents per yard 
is only $431,250, involving an expendi- 
ture of $887,500 in labor and the purchase 
of raw material. 



226 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



CHAPTER IX. 

I will now undertake to discuss the 
merits of another branch of cotton 
manufacturing, that of spinning yarn 
for exportation. But before entering 
on this subject, I will notice two very 
common errors entertained among us, 
which will prove fatal if not removed. 
The first is that cotton manufacturing 
is so complicated in its details and re- 
quires such nice management to keep 
it in order, the delicate amd complicated 
machinery' that none need expect to 
succeed in it who have not ser\-ed a 
regular apprenticeship at the business. 
The other is, that the improvements 
constantly making in machinery ren- 
der it necessary to lay aside old, and 
purchase new, in order to keep up with 
the age. 

TVith regard to the firs't, (the idea of 
there being great difficulty in the man- 
agement of a manufacturing establish- 
ment,) I will merely say that it arises 
from drawing a comparison between 
it, and the mechanical trades, all of 
which require skillful workmen to man- 
age them with advantage; but the op- 
erations of a cotton factory differ al- 
most as widely from those of a carpen- 
ter's shop or any other mechanical 
trade, as from a cotton plantation. We 
might, with the same propriety, dis- 
trust our capacity to operate steam en- 
gines; they are verj^ complicated ma- 
chines, yet when fed with fuel and wa- 
ter we find them doing their duty and 
without much mechanical labor. So 
with the power printing press and a 
thousand other machines that might be 
named. The printing press is also a 
complicated machine, yet, we find it 
operating well without the aid of the 
machinist who made it. The same re- 
marks apply equally to a cotton fac- 
torj-. The overseer of the carding de- 
partment should be skilled in his 
branch of the business, and understand 
thoroughly how to keep the machinery 
of a carding room in order. So w-ith 
the ovei seers of the s-pinning and 
weaving departments. Each, if he un- 
derstands his business, will be able to 
keep the machinery of his department 
in working order, it being necessary 
to have a regular machinist only to do 
large repairs, such as would cause the 
overseer to be absent himself from the 
immediate supervision of his depart- 
ment. The common operatives have 
nothing to do with the keeping of the 
machinery in order, but simply with 
the handling of the cotton as it passes ' 
through the mill; and the secret of sue- j 
cess in a cotton factory is just that I 



which is necessary for the success of 
any other enterprise. If planting re- 
quire the skilful direction of labor so 
is it with a coDton factory. If in mer- 
chandizing, economy in all depart- 
ments of the business and an observ- 
ant eye as to the results, be requisite 
to success, so will it be with the marl**- 
facturer. He who engages in manu- 
facturing must not expect, to lead a life 
of idleness, it is not without its cares, 
and is subjected to the mishaps and 
ups and downs that attend any other 
department of business in life. The 
labors are, however, entirely mental 
and just such as are required to give 
healthful and pleasant employment to 
a retired merchant. The man who has 
devoted the greater part of his life to 
mercantile pursuits is generally, from 
his habits, unfitted for literary pleas- 
ures: still his habits are so active as to 
forbid his living in Idleness. The su- 
pervision of a well regulated manufac- 
turing establishment is above all other 
employments, the best adapted to such, 
a man. While it serves to keep him 
from being locked up in stocks. He 
continues the manager of the foritune 
he has accumulated by his industry 
and good management, and becomes 
a valuable producer to his country; 
when he would otherwise be induced to 
follow the popular error of placing his 
money under the control of corporate 
institutions managed by men who fre- 
quently have no pecuniary interest in 
them, and who being, often bad man- 
agers of their own affairs volunteer in 
the service of lending other people's 
money. 

We will now proceed to notice the 
second error alluded to above, viz.: 
that the improvements in machinery 
are so frequent as to require old to be 
constantly replaced with new machin- 
ery. There never was a greater mis- 
take than this and in proof of it I will 
only refer you to Boston manufactories. 
The same machinery that was put in 
operation from 1S22 to 1828 is still at 
work and competing successfully with 
that made recently. Nearly all the 
useful improvements have been such 
as could be applied to the old machin- 
ery, and the applicatoin is usually made 
by the regular machinist em'ployed 
about the establishment. The parts 
which wear rapidly are not material 
and are easily replaced; such as card 
clothing, and a few of the journals 
having a very rapid motion. The live 
spindle wears out in from ten to twen- 
ty years. A machine with 130 spindles, 
which cost $700, may be repaired and 
refitted with new spindles for about 



DOMESTIC INDUSTTIY. 



227 



$125, when it will be about as good as 
a new one. 

We will now take up the subject an- 
nounced at the opening of the chapter. 
The spinning of cotton yarn is, beyond 
doubt, a busiiness thait might be under- 
taken by us with a prospect of eminent 
success. All Che complication in man- 
ufactuiing takes place after the yarn is 
spun. The preparation for and weav- 
ing into merchantable cloth involves 
more than half of the labor and ex- 
pense of manufacturing and by far the 
most skill and atletntion. A given num- 
ber of hands will turn off double the 
quan'tity of yarn that could be turned 
into cloth by the s'ame. But two over- 
seers are required, a carder and a spin- 
ner. And there is no good reason, why 
the name of some of our large planters 
should not be seen oei bales of yarn, 
making their way to Europe to supply 
the markets that are now monopolized 
by the English spinners. England has 
for years been sending millions of dol- 
lars worth of this article to the conti- 
nent. Simce 1832 she has exported to 
that part of the world from sixteen to 
twenty-five miillions of dollars worth 
per annum. And what is to prevent us 
in Carolina, from setting up a claim to 
a portion of this trade? Are we afraid 
of Northern competition in this the 
simplest of all kinds of manufacture? 
The South has never failed to suipplant 
the North in this branch of manufac- 
tures whenever the attempt has ueen 
made. Previous to 1833 there were 
many cotton factories about Philadel- 
phia and throughout the North eng'aged 
in making cotton yarn to supply the 
hand and power loom weavers; but 
since the erection of mills at Peters- 
burg, Va., Fayetteville, N. C, and in 
South Carolina and Georgia, the result 
has been to drive most of these North- 
ern spinners to weaving. The commis- 
sion merchants of Philadelphia and 
New York engaged in the yarn trade 
will tell you tihat the South has taken 
complete possession of the market. 
The home trade in this article may 
now be said to be ours. Are we afraid 
of coming in competition with English 
labor? Notwithstanding what has been 
said about direct trade and getting 
goods cheaper from England it is the 
dearest labor in the world. The Conti- 
nental powers of Europe have learned 
this fact and are making every possi- 
ble effort to perform the operation of 
cotton spinning for themselves, which 
they would not think of doing, if they 
could be supplied from a country that 
could afford it as cheaply as ours. 

The average pay of factory opera- 



tives in England is, according to Dt. 
Ure's statistics of cotton manufactures 
in Great Briitain, $2.50 per week. Mc- 
Cullooh puts it at £22 10s. per annum. 
It cannot be reduced below this sum, 
as this is barely sufficient with the 
great majority of them to maintain 
existence. Manufacturing establish- 
ments are taxed so highly by tihe Brit- 
ish government that it amounts to up- 
wards of fifty per cent, on the price of 
the mianufacturing labor of the North- 
ern States, and more than one hundred 
per cent, on the value of labor in our 
own State. Many establishments pay 
directly and indirectly to the British 
government 20, 40, 60, and even $80,000 
per annum, in the shape of taxes. Let 
us not deceive ourselves with the idea 
that goods must be cheap because they 
are made in a country in which labor 
is so cheap as barely to sustain life; 
but let us bear in mind that everythLng 
w'hich enters into the support of an 
English operative is so highly taxed 
that the sum wihich is required to af- 
ford him a scanty subsistence is double 
that which would make him comfort- 
able in Carolina. Let us remember that 
the article which is produced by the 
English six penny labor is taxed a shil- 
ling for the support of an extravagant 
government. To illustrate this point 
I will quote the language of Mr. Kirk- 
ham Finlay, an English gentleman of 
great authority in these matters, who, 
in his report on commerce, manufac- 
tures, etc., says: "I think the differ- 
ence would be this, that if the amounts 
of wages paid in Great Britain, was ab- 
solutely necessary for the comfortable 
subsistence of the workmen, it would 
be quite clear that whatever pressure 
there might 'be those wages could be 
pernranently reduced; but if the mooiey 
wages paid in America are sufficient to 
get a great deal more than the abso- 
lute ne'Cessaries and comforts of life, 
then, if there is a pressure upon its 
manufacturers they can so reduce the 
wages as to meet that difficulty, and by 
that means undersell the manufactur- 
ers here." The enormous taxes levied 
on all branches of business, but more 
particularly on cotton spinning, are 
the duty on the raw material — on flour 
for sizing, on oil, on the glass which 
admits the light, on postage, checks, 
receipts, promissory notes and adver- 
tisements — on the money which is bor- 
rowed or paid, on the transfer of any 
property purchased or sold and on the 
policies of insurance. This last item of 
tax on the cotton manufactures of 
England amounts alone to about $360,- 
000 per annum. 



228 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



"The heavy cloths in which the com- 
petition of America has been principal- 
ly felt, are woven with coarse j^arns 
from Xos. 10 to 20. It appears from the 
schedule of the prices of spinning in 
the factories of the United States, com- 
pared with the prices paid for the 
same work in Glasgow, annexed to Mr. 
Kirkham Pinlay's letter, to Lord Ash- 
ley in 1833, that the prices of spinning 
these numbers of yarn were for a given 
quantity 4s. in the United States and 
4.S. lid. m Glasgow, being 22 per cent., 
in favor of America. The prices of card- 
ing the same numbers were in the 
United States 6s 7%d. per week and in 
Glasgow 7s. l^/id. per week, being 7 
per cent, in favor of America. 

"In the operation of dressing the warp 
of heavy goods, the American has an 
advantage of 50 per cent, in price and 
in weaving of 25 per cent., being upon 
the two taken together, an advantage 
of 36 per cent. The total charges for 
dressing and weaving are: 

In England, per piece Is. 2^4(5. 

In America, per piece 10%d. 

or 36 per cent, of the charges per piece 
in favor of the United States." — Dr. 
Ures' Treatise on the Cotton Manufac- 
tures of Great Britain. 

As we begin to have some practical 
experience in manufacturing at the 
South, we can now see what an absurd- 
ity it would be for us to pack up our 
cotton and send it to England to be 
returned as osnaburgs, taxed from $60 
to $80 per bale as was the case former- 
ly; when the same can be converted 
into cloth, in the immediate neighbor- 
hood of the place in which it grew, for 
one-fourth of the sum. It is equally as 
absurd in us to send our raw cotton to 
Europe to be spun into yarn — adding 
$40 to $50 to the value of a bale which 
yields the planter of the interior after 
paying the expense of transp^Drtation 
from $12 to $15 only; thus paying in a 
double transportation government 
taxes and foreign labor, four times the 
amount that it would cost to do the 
same thing by the labor of our own ne- 
groes. T\^hen these facts are presented 
to our view can we have the face to 
complain that capital employed in di- 
recting the labor of our State will not 
pay more than 3 per cent? Where shall 
we find as cheap labor as that which 
we have at our command? I may safe- 
ly assert it is the cheapest in the world. 
T\"hich of the two is the cheaper, free 
or slave labor, is a question not yet de- 
cided by manufacturers at the South. 
All concur that there is no difference 
as to capability; the only question is 



whether hired labor is not cheaper 
than slave labor? There is no difficulty 
with a Carolinian in deciding what 
slave labor is worth; and as a proof of 
the difference between white labor here 
and at the North, we refer you to the 
pay list of a factory in Lowell and one 
in South Carolina, with the explana- 
tion that the hands in the Lowell mill 
are more efficient than those in the 
South Carolina factory, no operatives 
being employed in the former under 15 
years of age. The weavers and over- 
seers are omibted in both lists. The 
former being paid by the job, earn 
about as much here as in Lowell; and 
each family have one or two of this 
class who earn from $3 to $3.50 per 
week, making together a sum that af- 
fords them such living as they have not 
previously been accustomed to. Tlie 
overseers in both factories receive simi- 
lar wages. All the hands in the Caro- 
lina factory receiving 16 cents and up- 
wards per day are efficient ones; and 
the girls receiving 20 and 26 cents per 
day, would do themselves credit along- 
side of the Lowell spinners. 



CHAPTER X. 

There is no difficulty in obtaining la- 
bor at the prices set forth In the pay 
liet referred to in annexed tables, but 
it is not desiralble that such a state of 
things should continue. Let manufac- 
tures be once introduced among us and 
the condition of this class of persons 
will soon become more elevated when 
they will require higher wagea The 
cheapness of living, mildness of climate 
and other circumstances so much in our 
favor, render 75 cents here more than 
equal to $1 in New Elngland. In the in- 
terior of this State we can put up a 
comfortable frame and weatherboard- 
ed house, spacious enough to aceommo- 
dale a large family for $140. Fire wood 
is furnished at $1 per cord and other 
necessaries may be had at proportion- 
ate rates. Compare this state of things 
with that of any other country. Look 
at the wages of England and consider 
that her operatives are but scantily fed, 
and are without fuel sufficient to keep 
them comfortable in cold weather; 
while ours, with their low wages have 
all the actual necessaries that render 
a human being comfortable. Consider 
the fact that in addition to the innu- 
merable and oppressive taxes levied on 
the English spinner, he is subjected to 
a tax on the raw material of 5-16 of a 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



229 



penny, half the amount required here, 
to convert it into yarn. In connection 
with these facts is it necessary to re- 
mind you that we have a larg'e class of 
miserable poor white people among U'S, 
without any employment to render 
them producers to the State; who, If 
too lazy to work themselves mig-ht be 
induced to place their children in a 
situation in vfhich they would be edu- 
cated and reared in industrious habits. 
"When we consider the deplorable fadt 
that there are 20,600 white people in this 
State over the age of 20 years who can 
neither read nor write and that no 
measures are taken by us to elevate 
their condition, we musit oome to the 
conclusion that there is something radi- 
cally wrong in South Carolina. If we 
have proved that there is a field for the 
profitable investment of capital in the 
employment of these people, then it 
cannot be denied that there is a vast 
opening for philanthropic operations on 
the part of thoste who possess the 
wealth of our State; indeed, this iis a 
field for the exercise of the labors of 
every Christian in the land. Let us see 
those that are commendably and zeal- 
ously engaged in the missionary cause 
look to it that they are not sending aid 
to countries in a much better condition, 
in this respect than our own. If we 
have 20,600 over the age of 20 years out 
of 112,000, we of cours'e may add 8,800 
out of the 47,855 between the ages of 12 
and 20, making in all 29,400 persons in 
South Carolina over the age of 12 years 
who cannot read the Bible — a number 
equal to the entire population of 
Charleston. These are facts that ought 
to awaken the sympathies of every 
educated son and daughter of our State. 
They are worthy the serious considera- 
tion of our politicians who flatter them- 
selves that our State is the paragon of 
perfection — a bright star, shedding light 
on the whole Union — w^hoae politicians 
are capable of giving lessons in politi- 
cal economy to the whole world. It 
would be well for this distinguished 
class of persons to give this subject a 
thorough investigation and see whether 
so large a portion of our people could 
not be so employed as to alleviate some 
of the burdens complained of in South 
Carolina. 

Nearly the whole of this class of per- 
sons, and, we may safely add as many 
more as will make the number fifty 
thousand over the age of 12 years, are 
non-producers to our State, purely be- 
cause they are neglected by those pos- 
sessing tho capital of our country. 
Labor is capital, and when directed 
with the energy and judiciously diver- 



sified it fixes population and creates a 
kind of wealth which the spirit of emi- 
gration ca«inot remove' — which is not 
transferable — and which leaves an in- 
delible impress that time alone can ef- 
face. Allow tha;t two-thirds of this fif- 
ty thousand among which we include 
the aged and decrepit, be required to 
raise provisions, make clothing, cook, 
wash, etc., for the balance, and we shall 
have left 16,666 persons whose labor, if 
as well directed as that in the Massa- 
chusetts mills at Lowell would turn into 
cloth a quantity of raw material equal 
to 5,152 pounds to the hand per annum 
and a gross amount of 248,878 bales of 
345 pounds each, fully as much as is 
supposed to constitute the entire crop 
of South Carolina; and if we content 
ourselves with making no finer cloths 
than are woven from No. 14 yarn we 
will add an average value to our staple 
of at least 15 cents per pound or $12,- 
879,480.80. But we will be satisfied to 
estimate the capacity of our operatives 
as being only half that of the Lowell 
operatives; and in that case ours would 
only be able to spin this quantity of 
cotton into yam, thus adding toi the 
value of each pound of cotton according 
to the present rates of prices in this 
State, Philadelphia and New York, lO' 
cents or $8,586,323.20. 

In the town of LoTvell there are 
about 6,500 persons employed in spin- 
n'ing and weaving cotton cloth, one fac- 
tory making osnaburgs of 4% yam, the 
balance running on drillings, sheetings, 
shirtings, and printing cloths, from 
yarn of 14 to 40. They consumed in the 
year 1843 22,880,000 pounds of cotton or 
66,316 bales of 345 pounds each. The 
Massachusetts mills, four in number, 
employed 885 hands and turned out 13,- 
520,000 yards or 4,560,000 pounds of cloth 
about 15 bales to the hand. These mills 
contain 27,008 spindles. At the same 
ratio of production it would require 
508,554 spindles to turn the crop of 
South Carolina into yarn; this machin- 
ery for spinning only would cost about 
$7.50 per spindle or $3,814,155. The looms 
and apparatus for weaving the same 
would cost about $3.50 per spindle or 
$1,779,939; making the entire cost of ma- 
chinery necessary to spin and weave 
248,878 bales of cotton $5,594,084. AU 
other expenses, such as buildings, etc., 
would be the product of our domestic 
materials and labor; indeed much of 
the former would also be the product 
of our labor. Each mill of 5,000 spin- 
dles would require about 80,000 pounds 
of castings, shaftings, etc., all of which 
might be made in our own State, and 
of our own materials. 



230 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



If the poor white people of our State 
are not enough of themselves to make 
up a sufficietic number to turn our cot- 
ton crop into cloth, it certainly would 
not make such draughts upon the agri- 
cultural population as to be felt, espe- 
cially as women and children principal- 
ly would be required. 

Althougn we may not expect so great 
a change in our industrtal pursuits for 
many years, ya^t it cannot be denied 
that every step towards its consumma- 
tion will improve our condition. Inde- 
pendent of the fact that we should be 
supplying ourselves with all the coarser 
cotton fabrics, we should be enhancing 
'the value of our cotton crop three and 
four fold; and this is not the most im- 
portant aspect of the subject; this 
change could not operate othermse 
than to produce a highly improved 
state of agriculture; to bring around 
us all other branches of mechainism — 
to develop among us numbei'less 
sources of wealth — and to cut off the 
immense drains that are now impover- 
ishing us. An advance in the price of 
our great staple, situated as w'e are, 
only serves to widen the avenues 
through which our wealth leaves us; 
indeed, it may truly be said that the 
richer we grow the poorer we are; as an 
increase of imcome only begets a cor- 
respondent extravagance in expendi- 
ture. 

What would be the result of cotton's 
rising to and remaining for five years 
at 15 cents per pound and then return- 
ing to presemt prices? Any one at all 
conversant with our past history would 
say that we should find ourselves in a 
far worse condition than at present 
with our soil still further exhausted 
with no permanent improvements and 
all involved in debt. Indeed such a pe- 
riod of prosperity would only be brought 
to mind by the remembrance of the fol- 
lies we had indulged In and the debts 
we had contracted in anticipation of a 
continuance of high prices. 

The idea of our traversing the world 
to employ the steam power and poor 
people of other countries to do that 
which could be easily effected by our 
abundamt and now worthless water 
power and poor people is superlatively 
ridiculous and if followed out cannot 
end in anything but povarty and de- 
pendance. 

"Agriculture, to flourish, must have 
a market for it-s surplus productions. 
And what is a marke:t? Does that 
magic word reside in any place? Most 
people seem to think so. A market is 
everywhere. It is people, not a place 
—people not engaged in agriculture but 



employed in the production of some- 
thing which supplies a human want. 
And the nearer it is found to the farm- 
er's door the better, the less of his pro- 
ductions are spent in getting them to 
market. Agriculture can flourish then 
only where there is a large population 
engaged in manufactures and com- 
merce. 

"Hence the second source of national 
wealth is manufacturing industry. No 
nation ever became wealthy by raising 
the raw material and then exchanging 
ii for the manufactured article. The 
manufacturing people always have the 
advantage. They may work day and 
night, summer and winter, in fair and 
stormy weather. An agricultural pop- 
ulation work only in the day time, when 
the earth is free from frosts and when 
the clouds are not disburdening them- 
selves upon the earth. A manufactur- 
ing population can avail themselves to 
any extent of the aid of machinery. 
The fall of water in the town of Lowell 
is made to do the work of a million hu- 
man beings. Everything the farmer 
raises must be brought out of the earth 
by main force, bj^ hand work. The 
farmer's productions are bulky and are 
often almost consumed in getting them 
to market. The manufactured article 
is usually comparatively light in pro- 
portion to its value. The farmer, more- 
over, is obliged to take the chances of 
unpropitious seasons and occasionally a 
short crop. But no variation of the sea- 
sons has ever been known to produce 
a snort crop of boots and shoes, and no 
drought has ever been so gr&sit as to 
blight the labors of the loom. With 
these advantages a manufacturing peo- 
ple will alwaj-s contrive to keep an ag- 
ricultural people in debt. Towns and 
cities will spring up among them and 
the very flact of a condensed popula- 
tion giives them great advantages. An 
exclusively agricultural people in the 
present age of the world will always 
be poor. They want a home market. 
They want that enterprise and acti\i- 
ty which is engendered merely by 
bringing masses of people to act upon 
each other by mutual stimulation and 
excitement. Why Is the balance of 
trade continually in favor of the North? 
Because our labor is not sufficiently di- 
versified, because the raw material goes 
from this very city to the North to be 
manufactured and then comes back to 
be worn by our citizens while we have 
among us thousands and thousands 
who might work it up, but who are ly- 
ing here idle, and many of them sup- 
porfled by public charity!" — Southern 
Quarterly Review, vol. ill. p. 362. 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



231 



Suppose the protective system to be 
wholly abandoned by the country, how 
will the change affect our condition as 
a State? Will it bring back the rich 
treasures that have left us? Will it 
bring back the enterprising citizems 
that have removed from our State to 
settle in others? Will it be the means 
of resuscitating our worn out soil? 
Shall not the sound still continue to be 
rung in our ears, of ten bales to the 
hand in Mississippi and three in Caro- 
lina? So long as we make the culture 
of cotton our chief employment will not 
the same oauses continue to exist that 
are now depopulating our State? Yes, 
they will and until we make a radioal 
change m our pursuits our wealthy and 
enterprising citizens will continue to 
leave us. Let us then set about produc- 
ing this change. Let us endeavor to 
bring about such a state of things as 
shall invite the industry, if not capital 
of other countries to our State. Let us 
try to cultivate a good feelimg among 
our people for our Northern brethren. 
We have no lack of trading men from 
among this class of persons. Let us of- 
fer inducements that shall bring their 
working men to our delightful climate; 
they will soon replace the capital that 
has left our State. They will teach our 
children lessons of industry amd econo- 
my. They will furnish materials for the 
academic schools, recommended by our 
Governor. They will teach us the value 
of thousands of acres of swamp land 
in South Carolina, yet covered with 
their primeval forest trees. They will 
teach us lessons in agriculture that 
shall prove to us that the money ex- 
pended for an agricultural survey has 
not been spent in vain; and above all, 
they will give some of our wise men 
practical lessons in political economy. 
Such a change would revive the trade 
of our city and bring about a new and 
flourishing state of things in South 
Carolina. 



CHAPTER XI. 

I trust that enough has been said on 
the subject of cotton manufactures to 
prove the practicability of engaging 
in them in South Carolina in competi- 
tion with any other country. To the 
thinking part of the community it Is 
hoped arguments are not now necessary 
to show the necessity of changing our 
industrial pursuits in order to close up 
the flood gates that are draining our 
State of its enterprising planters and 
negro population to people the West 
and sweeping off millions of mercantile 



capital to build manufacturing towns 
at the North. Yes, to build up tOT\-ns; 
for Charleston has done her part In this 
work. It is said, and we believe with 
truth, that the town of Bridgeport, in 
Connecticut, one of the most thriving 
manufacturing towns in that State, has 
been built by the capital of Charles- 
ton. The majority of its largest manu- 
facturing establishments have been 
put in operation by capital accumulat- 
ed in this city and we are daily adding 
to its wealth and population by the 
purchase of thousands of dollars worth 
of carriages, harness, saddlery and 
other articles. Indeed we may truly 
say that the manufacturers of Charles- 
ton have their work shops in Bridge- 
port, whose streets are paved with the 
money that should be spent in this city, 
and in which the palace of the manu- 
facturer will be erected when he re- 
tires from business. 

Before bringing my subject to a close 
I will make a few remarks on the policy 
to be pursued by those who may en- 
gage in manufactures on the use of 
steam power and on the cost of the ma- 
chinery necessary for manufacturing 
cotton. To such as are disposed to en- 
gage in this branch of busiiness, the 
caution cannot be too often repeated 
to guard against two errors which, so 
far as I am informed, have been the 
only obstacle to a realization of proflb 
from such investments at the South. 
So well convinced am I of this fact 
that whenever I hear of a failure to pro- 
duce profit in any enterprise of this 
sort I can, -n-ithout enquiry, safely pre- 
dict that it has resulted from one of 
these causes. 

The first is complication— undertak- 
ing to do too much. Persons commenc- 
ing this business at the south either 
forget are not aware of the fact that 
manufacturers are essentially whole- 
sale dealers. They generally set ou: 
with a notion that to run a mill of 2.000 
spindles on one thing would soon over 
stock the market: and by undertaking 
to fit out factories in such a manner as 
to avoid this, they commit a fatal er- 
ror. I often bring to mind a conversa- 
tion which I once had with a very in- 
telligent old gentleman who o't^med an 
interest in a small factory of 1.200 spin- 
dles. I will relate a part of it in order 
to exemplify the notions that prevail 
among us on this subject. In speaking 
of the advantage which South Carolina 
possessed in water power, he remarked, 
"that near his factorj- there was one of 
the finest mill seats in the State, but if 
a cotton mill should be erected on it it 
would ruin the one in which he had an 



232 



DOMESTIC INDUSTI^T. 



interest." This gentleman did not 
seem to be aware of the fact that a mill 
erected in Massachusetts was as much 
a competitor with his as if it were 
alongside of it and that any disadvan- 
tage from competitioei was more than 
counterbalanced by the advantage 
gained from communion. The owners 
of this little mill, at the time spoken 
of, were endeavoring bo force their 
goods off in the village in which it was 
located; this market was of course 
overstocked to the great embarrass- 
ment of this manufacturing company. 
After many hard struggles to avoid 
such an alternative, they were at length 
induced to send a few bales of their 
goods to the Charleston market not 
likely to be depressed by all the cloth 
that South Carolina may send to it for 
many years to come. 

Those who efmbark in this business 
should look entirely to a wholesale 
market. The idea of having an agent 
in every country village is ridiculous. 
Aside from the embarrassment and 
perplexity of having their goods scat- 
tered over the whole country, the 
agencies necessary for making different 
kinds of goods are wholly at war with 
any system which may be adopted 
w-ith regard to quantity. The stoppage 
necessary for changing machinery will 
destroy all system among the opera- 
tives and render it impossible, with the 
very best management to turn off any- 
thing like the quantity which might be 
produced by working at one thing only; 
and the loss in such cases would not be 
compensated by the difference between 
w"holesale and retail prices. The sale 
of the manufacturer's goods belongs 
rightfully to the commission merchant. 
He has no business peddling off his 
yarn and cloth at retail— let him leave 
that to small manufacturers or any per- 
son who desires to engage in such petty 
business. His goods should be forward- 
ed precisely as a planter's cotton is, to 
a mercantile agent to make the best 
disposition of them that a shipping 
market will afford, they should be sold 
as they are made. 

In making a selection of the kind of 
goods to be manufactured, care should 
be taken not to fix on an article with 
which the market is easily overstocked. 
The article osnaburgs is one of limited 
demand. South Carolina and Georgia 
are now over-supplied from our facto- 
ries, which send a surplus to Xew York 
and Xew Orleans. Two large establish- 
ments added to those which we now 
possess would monopolize the trade — 
make a supply suffident for the whole 
country— and force the Xorthem man- 



ufacturer to abandon the article. There 
are other articles equally as profitable 
which we can sell, such as cloths, made 
from Xo. 12 to 16 yarn, drills and mus- 
lins, weighing from 3 to 5 yards to the 
pound. Sheeting from 36 inches to 1% 
yards wide, shirtings from 26 to 36 
inches wide. These articles consume a 
large portion of all the cotton produced 
by the world; and if the little factory 
alluded to above as well as all the fac- 
tories in South Carolina (whose ma- 
chinery is well adapted to such goods 
and not to osnaburgs), were running on 
shirtings, sheetings or drills and had 
this village or any other town, even the 
city of Charleston, machinery enough 
to turn out 100,000 yards per day it 
would scarcely be felt in the market of 
the world. 

"UTien South Carolina once sets about 
manufacturing the wholesale merchants 
of Charleston will soon learn the way 
of doing business after the manner of 
those in Baltimore, Philadelphia and 
Xew York in purchasing large quanti- 
ties of these brown goods to be con- 
verted into colored muslins, bleached 
cloths of calico prints, this branch of 
business being now carried on very ex- 
tensively and as a distinct one from the 
other branches of manufacturing. For 
instance a merchant of Xew York will 
purchase 100 bales of the sleaziest goods 
in the market and send them to Provi- 
dence where they are dyed of various 
colors assorted as to finish and stamped 
with any particular mark he may choose 
to designate. Cambrics % wide are col- 
ored and finished for 1% cents per yard, 
4-4 wide for 2 cents and silesias for 
about the same price. The same mer- 
chant sends a quantity of brown shirt- 
ings or sheetings and has them bleached 
and finished in various styles making 
fom the same bale of cloth three or four 
kinds of goods. Bleaching long cloth, 
calender finish, costs 2% cents per 
pound, beetle finish 4 cents per pound, 
gold bands 4% cents each, cambric fin- 
ish 4 mills per yard extra. He may 
send another lot of either or both of 
these kinds of goods to be printed (des- 
ignating the patterns) when they are 
put into colors and shapes, stamped to 
suit him, boxed up and sent back. "We 
mention these facts to show the endless 
variety of uses to which these goods 
are put with which the original maker 
has nothing to do: and to show the de- 
mand we may expect for them when 
Charleston becomes a market for such 
goods. 

The second error alluded to is that of 
making the establishments too small. 
X^'o one in South Carolina should think 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



233 



of putting up a factory for making 
cloth to contain less than 5,000 spindles, 
unless he is willing to apprentice him- 
self to the business and go into the mill 
himself to oversee and manage it. Such 
a class of men will not easily be found 
in our State at the present time. 
Planters must not think of erecting 
small mills to spin their own cotton; 
even in Kentucky, where manufactur- 
ing is performed by hand labor there 
are few instances of its being underta- 
ken by those who raise the hemip. This 
may, however, be done with great pro- 
priety, by many planters in this State 
that I could name, who possess the 
requisite capital for erecting mills, and 
negroes for working them; but such 
ought to confine their operations to 
yarn for shipment. It must be remem- 
bered that they who have talent enough 
to rise to the situation of overseers, in 
manufacturing establishments, have, in 
common with all mankind, pride of 
character. A young man, reared in one 
of these fine Massachusetts establish- 
ments, would consider it almost 
an insult, to be offered a situation in a 
1,00, or 2,000-spindle factory in South 
Carolina. Such men could nob be in- 
duced, for ordinary wages, to take 
charge of anything short of a firstt rate 
establishment; and if employed to take 
charge of such an one, they would come 
out, expecting to make it produce the 
same quantity that the mills of New 
England do. Any gentleman who at- 
tempts manufacturing on a small scale, 
in this State, will find that he has in- 
vested his capital in that, which is not 
easily disposed of, and that profitable 
results can only be obtained by the ut- 
most vigilance, should he undertake to 
conduct his mill in person. If he em- 
ploy overseers, he will find it difficult 
to obtain such, as are skilful at their 
business; and if he even get skilful 
ones they cannot be relied on. Taking 
it altogether, it will be found to be a 
business suited to few persons. 



CHAPTER XII. 

Steam power being now in general 
use, information with regard to its 
economy, in driving machinery, is at 'the 
command of most persons, particularly 
in towns, in which it is most likely to 
be used. It will, therefore, not be neces- 
sary to say much on this subject. In 
the city of Charleston we have an inex- 
haustible supply of wood for such pur- 
poses, and our location is more favor- 
able as regards the use of Pesnsylvania 
coal, than any of the eastern cities. In 



England it is estimated that each pound 
of cotton consumes half a pound of coal 
in its manufacture. In a lecture on the 
comparative cost of wa.ter and steam 
power, delivered before the citizens of 
Hartford, Conn., by Mr. Charles T. 
James,, of Newburyport, and which wag 
recently re-published in The Charleston 
Courier, he states that to run two mills 
in the latter place, one of 6,336, and the 
other 11,000 spindles, with all the appa- 
ratus for weaving, consumes 314 tons of 
anthracite coal per day, for w'hich is 
paid, delivered at the factory, $4 42-100 
per ton. These are, however, mule spin- 
dles, which require 20 per cent, less 
power than such as we would usa 
Montgomery, in his "Treatise on Cot- 
ton Manufacturing," gives 65 horse 
power, as the size of an engine, compe- 
tent to drive 5,000 heavy spindles, and 
all the other machinery to make cloth. 
There are various ways of calculating 
horse power, he speaks of the English 
mode, that is, a power that will raise 
33,000 pounds, one foot, in a minute. 

It is a difficulb matter to give the 
cost of machinery, as there is such a 
variety of kinds used, with so many 
different grades of finish. There is an 
estimate before me, made for another 
person, of the cost of machinery, includ- 
ing gearing, shafting and pulleys, com- 
plete, for a factory containing 2 Dap 
machines— 27 thir-ty-inch cards— 2,268 
spindles, and 24 Qsnaburg looms, for 
$24,000: and a high pressure engine of 
30 horse power, to drive it, for $5,000. I 
will now give a second estimate, fur- 
nished from a different establishment, 
which is as follows: (not including the 
running gear), for 20 cards, 4,032 spin- 
dles and 130 looms, with all the appa- 
ratus, requisite for running it, boxed up 
and delivered on ship board, $36,356. 
The machinery, such as we should re- 
quire, may be had from $10 to $12 per 
spindle. The shafting and gearing for a 
mill of 5.000 spindles could certainly be 
put up for $2,500 or $3,000. It would not 
be safe, however, to estimate the cost 
of all the machinery, such as is used in 
Lowell, for a mill of 5,000 spindles, de- 
livered in Charleston, at less than $60,- 
000.* 

I am almost ashamed to say anything 
more on the subject of steam power in 
Charleston. Indeed, the restrictions on 
its use, in this city, are not in keeping 
with the age in which we live; when the 
Press, which prints this article, a 
beautiful and complicated machine, 
which with the aid of steam power 
would perform its work of itself, is 
driven by the labor of negroes, two of 
whom may be seen, whenever it is in 



234 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



operation, with coats, jackets and shirts 
off, sweating and tug-g-ing like horses; 
and all this labor might be performed 
■with verj' little more fire than is used 
in a common parlor grate, and not 
much more risk. Steam power is so 
universally used in all the Xorthern 
cities that you can scarcely find a 
grindstone that is not turned by it. I 
had occasion, while in Philadelphia, to 
look for a child's velocipede, and was 
directed to a man who made them in ■ 
Dock street. I found him busily engaged 
turning out quantities of them for our 
Southern market; his lathes and cir- 
cular saw were driven by a small en- 
gine, which, together with its furnace, ! 
did not occupy the space necessary for 
a smith's forge, and it certainly did not 
produce half the smoke. On another oc- 
casion I visited a lastmaker. His shop 
was in the fourth story of a house near 
Market, between Fourth and Fifth 
streets: his lathes were also driven by 
a steam engine, the furnace for which 
was an iron stove, with the boiler on 
the top of it, the smoke pipe entering 
the chimney. He had more power than 
he needed, and rented the surplus to a 
carpenter, in the fourth story of a 
house, om the opposite side of a narrow 
street, the power being communicated 
by a belt. At another time, I paid a 
visit to a pencil-maker; his lathes were 
likewise turned by steam power, and I 
do not exaggerate when I assert that 
the furnace of his engine could not con- 
tain half a bushel of coal. I could go 
on naming numberless similar instanoes 
for I had the curiosity to notice these 
things, having long regarded our re- 
strictions as impolitic and illiberal. 
We ought to be as liberal as other 
cities in this respect. Slight impedi- 
ments often turn the course of large 
streams, and so it may be in this mat- 
ter. Our city council ought to adopt the 
course pursued by Philadelphia and 
New York, in relation to steam power. 
The latter city has no legislation on 'the 
.subject, nor ought Charleston to have 
any. Every man has his redress in the 
common law for actual nuisances. 

rt cannot be disputed that the South- 
em States have been unjustly taxed for 
the support of manufactures in this 
country-, for it has been against their 
■will. They have refused to embark in 
this business, while the Northern people 
have done so. and built up their section 
of country by "the operation; but we 
must remember that the day of retri- 
bution must come. nay. is close at hand, 
when the South shall be amply com- 
pensated for the many burthens im- 
posed heretofore, by the protective sys- 



tem. The laws of trade are regulated 
by supply and demand, and will acD in 
spite of human legislation. All the 
powers on earth cannot change these 
laws, and an effort to subvert them 
would be as futile as an attempt to still 
the ocean. Any one that has travelled 
through the Northern States, with a 
view of gaining information on this 
subject, cannot have come to any other 
conclusion, than that the United States 
is soon to stand first, among manufac- 
turiing nations. He who confines his 
walks to the fine streets of New York, 
Philadelphia and Boston, can have but 
a faint idea of what is going on in 
these worlds of trade. To get a knowl- 
edge of these things, one must go into 
the garrets and cellars — into the by- 
ways and alleys, where he will find 
thousands of native-born Americans, as 
well as foreigners, from all parts of the 
globe, engaged in the various branches 
of the mechanic arts. In articles com- 
posed of steel and iron, there is noth- 
ing which the world produces, that is 
not now being made in this country; 
froim the needle to the 1,000-horse 
power engine and ship of war. In brass, 
coipper and lead, everything that enters 
into the consumption of man — in silk, 
wool and cotton, everjnhing necessary 
for comfort or elegance — in books, gold, 
silver, shells, diamonds, pearls and all 
kinds of precious stones, everything 
that can administer to the refinement, 
luxury, or taste of man, or serve for the 
decoration and ornament of the fair 
sex — everj^ article to equip the soldier, 
or decorate, in gorgeous array, the 
plumed officer — all articles of furniture 
and plate required to fit out, in the 
most elegant stj-le. the table, or draw- 
ing room, or any other part of the most 
costly mansion, may now be procured 
in the work-shops of this country. 
There is not an article imported from 
any part of the world, however delicate 
in texture, or curious in form and color, 
that is not immediately imitated; and 
before it is fairly on the shelves of the 
importer, it is offered for sale by our 
own manufacturers. Such is the state 
of things in this country, that scarcely 
a ship arrives at any of our Northern 
por'ts but brings among its emigrants 
artisans from Rome, Paris. London 
and other European cities. These men 
do not come alone: they bring with 
them work-shops, tools, apprentices and 
journeymen: and in every hole and cor- 
ner of our large Northern cities, they 
may be seen at work. 

Well m.ay the New York merchan'-s 
be opposed to a system of domestic in- 
dustry, which transfers the work-shops 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



235 



of Europe to our own country, thus de- 
priving theim of the profit derived from 
the importation of the articles which 
this class of men manufadture. Go 
where you may, in the city, or out of it, 
and you are seldom, or never, out of 
the sound of the steam eng-ine — travel 
the country over, where you may, and 
you will not find a water-fall that is not 
occupied, or that preparations are not 
being made to bring it into use. The 
arts are no longer confined to any par- 
ticular spot on the globe. Artisans of all 
nations, are now at liberty to roam 
where they please; and just as certain 
as water will find its level, will t'hey 
congregate in those countries that offer 
the greatest inducements to settle. We 
have no nobility to support in extrava- 
gance in this country, and it is becom- 
ing known, even among the poverty- 
stricken operatives of Manchester that 
there is a land where industry finds its 
reward, at least in all the comforts of 
life. Our free institutions, healthful cli- 
mate, cheap living, absence from taxa- 
tion etc., cannot but offer strong in- 
ducements to the European manufac- 
turer, to emigrate to our happy land. 
The time is not far distant when these 
United States shall manufacture great- 
ly more than they can consume, and 
compete with the whole world, for other 
markets. Then will the tables be turned, 
and the day of retribution come; when 
the manufacturers of this country s'hall 
be competing with each other for the 
home market, and we shall be supplied 
at prices far below what we should have 



been, without the American manufaC' 
turer. The Southern States could not 
take a more effectual step to bring 
about this state of t'hings, than by 
commencing the manufacture of coarse 
cotton fabrics, which, by right, belongs 
to them, and which they will get, with 
the first effort made to obtain it. They 
would, at once, drive the eastern mills, 
now engaged in this business, to the 
manufacture of fine goods. The im- 
mense works already in operation and 
the millions of capital engaged in man- 
ufactures, would still continue to be en- 
gaged in them. For a trifiing expense, 
any of those Massachusetts mills may 
be so altered, as to run on the finest 
cotton fabrics; and the disposition to 
change, from coarse to fine goods, ex- 
ists with all manufacturers, so that it 
will require no great effort to drive the 
coarse spinners from their present oc- 
cupation, to compete with their neig'h- 
bors, in the making of fine fabrics. 
Finally, when we shall 'have put a stop 
to the draughts, which the Southwest- 
ern States are continually making upon 
us and shall have invested our capital 
in the business of manufacturing our 
raiW material into yarn and coarse fab- 
rics, making a mutual exchange with 
our Northern brethren, of the coarser 
for the finer goods, then we shall find 
the tariff no longer a subject to quarrel 
about; but we shall dwell in peace and 
harmony and all shall rejoice in the 
blessings which this system of domes- 
tic industi-y will confer on South Caro- 
lina. 



236 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



Table a. 





big 


s s 






Allowance for loss in 


NAME OF THE COMPANY. 




CAPITAL. 




outfit, and for fire 
insurance, they be- 




IU>I 




2 > 


ing their own in- 




Ha 




H'^ 




^5 


surers. 




o 






< 




Merrimack 


1825 


20 


2,000,000 


123^ 


Less 1 per cent. 




1828 
1829 


17 

16 


1,000,000 
600,000 


10^ 

9% 




1 1-10 " 


Appleton 


1 1-8 




1831 
1833 
1833 


14 
11^/i 

ny2 


600,000 
600,000 
600,000 


9 
14 

10^ 




1 1-5 


Suffolk 


1 2-5 " 


Tremont 


1 2-5 




1834 


11 


1,500,000 






1 2-5 


Boott 


1838 
1841 


6^ 
4 


1,200,000 
1,200,000 


8 
5K 




9 ■• 


Massachusetts 


3 



TABLE B. 

Estimate made out for myself, by Messrs. Rogers, Ketchum & Grosvenor, of Paterson, N. J. 

5,000 Spindles for making yarn. This is 20 per cent higher than 

usual on account of the great demand. 



One Willow S 75 

" 30-in picker 320 

" Lap machine 320 

35 30-in. carding machines 7,525 

1 grinding frame 90 

6 .3-strand drawing frames, at $70 per 

head 1,260 

6 16-strand speeders at S330 1,980 

5000 improved live throstle spindles, at 

S5 each 25,000 

12 double reels, at S60 720 

1 yarn press 40 

1 slide rest, for turning card cylinders 20 

Emery Rollers for card grinding 15 

1 banding machine 25 

10,000 speeder bobbins, at 3J4c 350 

15,000 throstle " at3^c 525 

Turning lathe 100 

Drilling machine and other tools 350 

Amount carried forward S 38,715 



Amount brought forward §38,715 

Miscellaneous articles which will be 
necessary to complete the above, such 
as belt leather, cloth and leather for 
covering rollers, card cans, etc 800 

$ 39,515 

Boxing furnished at cost. All the ma- 
chinery warranted to be built of the 
best materials, embracing the most 
modern improvements, and fitted up 
in superior style, the workmanship not 
to be surpassed by any other establish- 
ment in the country. 

The machinery necessary to prepare the 
yarn and weave it into cloth, in con- 
nection with the above, would cost 
about iS 15,000 

Total cost S 54,515 



DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



237 



TABLE C. 

Estimate of the cost of Buildings, Machinery, &c., for a Cotton Factory, extracted from Jamet 
Montgomery's Work on Cotton Manufacturing. 

Brick, or stone-house, four stories and attic,. 142 by 42 $ 25,000 

"Water wheel, gearing and belting '. 

Furniture, gas and steam pipes, lathes, tools, &c 

1 willow 

1 scutching machine 

40 carding engines, at S310 

6 drawing heads, 3 heads each, at $200 

6 double speeders, 18 spindles each, at $660 

7 extensers, 36 spindles each, at $900 

Roving and card cans 

Top and cylinder grinders, brushes, &c 

4992 throstle spindles, at $4.5J 

10,000 rove bobbins, at 6 cts : 

12,000 spinning frame bobbins, at 1 cent 

6,000 skewers, at 1 Y^ cents 

6,000 spools for warper, at 3 cts 

8 spooling machines, at $70 

6 warping " at $150 

Odressing " at $400 

128 looms, at 875 

Miscellaneous articles 



17,000 

2,000 

100 

600 

8,400 

1,200 

3,960 

6,300 

542 

210 

22 464 

600 

120 

»0 

180 

420 

900 

3,600 

9,600 

300 



$ 103,8.36 



This is evidently Massachusetts, or Rhode Island machinery, where they use the geared 
speeder. This is a high estimate for the building and water-wheel, for our back country. The 
Saluda Factory's building, of granite, 4 stories and an attic, 200 by 40 feet, cost only $20,000. The 
Vaueluse, of hewn granite, 4 stories and an attic, 80 by 40 feet, with wheel-pit and water-wheel, 
cost only $17,500. 



TABLE D. 

A Li 3t of Prices in Alfred Jinks' Machine Manufactory, Bridesburg, near Philadelphia. 



Small whipper, or willow : 

Spreader, or lap machine 

30-inch cotton cards (iron doffers) 

30-inch cotton cards (wooden doffers). . 

Drawing frame, 4 heads 

" 3 " 

Railway drawing 

Iron railway for 8 cards 

Improved eclipse, 10 spools, double roll- 
ers 

Improved eclipse, 10 spools, single roll- 
ers 

Throstle spindle, V/i bobbin 



Mule spindle 

Single reel 

Double " 

Spooling machine, 24 blocks. 



(spools.. 



; 75.00 
250.00 
230.00 
220.00 
240.00 
200.00 
125.00 
75.00 

250.00 

200.00 
4.50 
4.00 
2.25 
.25 
.40 
200.00 



Spooling Machine, 12 blocks, 24 spools. .$ 70.00 

"Warping machine and hack 50.00 

Sizing Machine 60.00 

Beaming machine 70.00 

Light 35 or 40-inch plain loom 50.00 

Heavy 40-inch, for heavy goods 55.00 

" " in twilled looms, with 2, 

3, 4 and 6 treadles 65.00 

Light do. 30-inch 60.00 

Check Looms 90.00 

Throstle spindle and flyer 1.00 

Castings for water-wheels and heavy 

gearings, furnished, per pound, at .06 

Shafts and couplings, pulleys, hangers, 

with composition boxes, per pound, at .10 
Iron and brass castings of all kfnds, 

per lb., at .05 



N. B. All the castings, both of iron and brass — the shafting, pulleys, &c. — may be procured 
at several places in Charleston. I have had them made by Thomas Dotterer, of superior manu- 
facture and as cheap as the prices above stated. 



238 



DO^TE'STIC INDUSTRY. 



TABLE E. 

Wages paid at Factories in Lowell and South Carolina, boarding not included. 



LOWELL MILL 



SOUTH CAROLINA MILL. 



han 



dsat $ 1.25 per 

1.04 



day. 



.84 
85 



.61 
.57 
.51 
.47 
.39 
.35 



1 mule spinner, at $ 1.50 per day. 

1 man, at 75 " 

3 men, at 50 " 

2 ■' 43 

3 " 39 

13 girls at 26 •' 

4 •' 25 

6 girls and boys at 20 " 

11 " 16 

6 " 13 

7 " 10 



TABLE F. 

Carding machines are now generally made from 30 to 36 inches wide, and are capable of 
carding from 3 to S'/s pounds to the inch. Spindles adapted to coarse yarn, such as is woven into 
osnaburgs, will turn out 1 pound to the spindle; so that it will be necessary to have 60 spindles. 
In making assorted yarn, from Nos. 8 to 30, smaller spindles are used, and a half-pound to the 
spindle is as much as can be taken from them ; so that 120 spindles will be required for each 
carding-engine. In putting up small factories, a picker and lap machine will be indispensable; 
and the following is as small a quantity of machinery as can be run to advantage : 



For a picker and lapper, each $200. 
" 4 carding engines, each $330.. . . 
" 1 three-head drawing frame. .. . 

" 1 twelve-strand speeder 

" 630 throstle spindles, each $5 . 



$ 400 

880 

310 

390 

3,100 

$ 3,880 

Add to this the proportion of bobbins, tools, and other miscellaneous articles, (which see 
Tables B., C. and D.) and you have about the cost of the machinery necessary in a factory con- 
taining 630 spindles. 

For a larger number of spindles, the cost will be increased in about the same ratio, except 
that the picker and lap-machine would answer for 3,000 spindles. 

A loom rnnning on osnaburgs, ought to turn out 38 pounds, or 56 yards of cloth per day; and 
those running on shirtings and sheetings, of Nos. 13 to 14 yarn, will make 15 pounds, or 45 yards 
of cloth. By these data, people will be able to ascertain the number of looms requisite for a 
given number of spindles. 



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240 DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. 



Yards of cloth per annum 74,141,600 

Pounds of cotton per annum 22,880,000 

Assuming half to be Upland and half New Orleans and Alabama, the consumption in 

bales, 3tjl pounds each, is ... 58,240 

A pound of cotton averages 3 1-5 yards. 

100 pounds cotton will produce 89 pounds cloth. 

Average wages of females, clear of board, per week fl.75 

Average wages of males, clear of board, per day .70 

Medium produce of a loom, No. 14 yam, yards per day 44 to 45 

No. 30 " " 30 

Average per spindle, yards per day , 1 1-10 

Average amount of wages paid per month $150,000 

Consumption of starch per annum (pounds) 800,000 

Consumption of flour for starch in mills, print works, and bleachery, barrels, per 

annum 4,000 

Consumption of charcoal, bushels per annnum 600,000 

The Locks and Canals Machine Shops, included among the 33 mills, can furnish machinety 
complete for a mill of 5,000 spindles in four months ; and lumber and materials are always at 
command, with which to build or rebuild a mill in that time, if required. When building mills, 
the Locks and Canals Company employ directly and indirectly from 1,000 to 1,300 hands. 

To the above-named principal establishments may be added, the Lowell "Water-Proofing, 
connected with the Middlesex Manufacturing Company; the extensive powder mills of O.M. 
Whipple, Esq, ; the Lowell Bleachery, with a capital of $50,000 ; Flannel Mill; Blanket Mill; 
Batting Mill ; Paper Mill ; Card and Whip Factory : Planing Machine ; Reed Machine ; Foundry; 
Grist and Saw Mills — together employing about 500 hands, and a capital of $500,000. 

With regard to the health of persons employed in the mills, six of the females out of ten enjoy 
better health than before entering the mills ; and of the males, one-half derive the same advan- 
tage. In their moral condition and character, they are not inferior to any portion of the com- 
munity. 

A very considerable portion of the wages of the operatives are deposited in the Lowell Insti- 
tution for Savings. 



1ln^ex♦ 



A. 

ALAMANCE Mills 185-201 

Analysis of Manfg. Cost 59 

Annual Consumption of Cotton per 

1,000 Spindles 73 

Annual Statements 80, 100, 103 

Automatic Sprinklers 159 

BALANCE Sheet 86 

Battle, Joel 201 

Bean. Michael 201 

Belt Guard 167 

Biographical Sketches 180 

Bivings, James 201 

Blanks. 

Cloth Mill 78-89 

Cloth and Tarn Mill 78-91 

Cloth Card 131 

Pay Roll Book 80-98 

Yarn Mill 77, 88, .93 

Tarn Card 132 

Bookkeeping 74 

Bounity to Cotton Growers 22 

Broad Tires 142-153 

By-Laws 26-45 

O 

CAPITAL Required 33 

Carrigan, W. A 201 

Chinese Imports 20 

Churches for Mill Villages 37-112 

Clemson College 135 

CloJth Card Blank 131 

Cloth Market 128-131 

Cloth Mill Blank 78 

Cloth and Tarn Mill Blank 78 

Closing Books 83 

Colored Labor 109 

Commission Houses 128 

Condensing Engines 122 

Consigning Goods 128 

Cooling Tower 124 



Cost Electric Transmission 125 

Labor Tables-55 

Mass. Mill Machinery, 1845. ..236-238 

Mass. Manufacturing, 1845 238 

Mills per Spindle Tables-52 

Mill Operatives Tables-54-65 

Road Building 147 

Selling Goods 128-132 

Steam Power 122 

Water Power 122 

Cotton as a Factor in Progress 1 

Gin 2 

Gin House 2 

Monopoly 13 

Oil 8 

Picking Cost 7 

Picking Machine 7 

Oil 8 

Convict Labor on Roads 147 

Courses of Study 137 

Curtailment of Crop 16 

r> 

DEPRECIATION 80 

Design of Mills 52 

Directors of Mills 29 

Domestic Industry 203 

Donaldson, H. A 201 

Draft of Wagons 151 

EGTPTIAN Cotton 14 

Electric Clock 162 

Electric Light 168 

Essays on Domiestic Industry 203 

Export Trade 24 

FACTORT Houses 116 

Factory Insurance 158 

Farm and Factory 176 

Financial Statement 76, 87, 101 



INDEX. 



F— Con. 

Fire Brigades 161 

Door 166 

'Insurance 158 

Pails Ill 

Protection 159 

Pump 160 

Wall 162 

First Cost of Mills Tables-52 

First Steamship 108 

Floor Space 170 

Fluctua-tion in Price of Cloth 60 

Freig-ht Rates 36 

Fries, Francis 183-202 

Fuel 124 

O 

GINNING Cotton 15 

Government Tests of Roads 154 

Graniteville Mills 181-202 

Great Falls Mills 202 

Gregg, William 181-202 

Grouping of Accounts 75 

Growth of Cotton Production 7 

H 

HAMME'TT, H. P 189 

Harmony in Mill Management 30 

Heating Mills 169 

History Early Mass. Mills 226-236 

Early Southern Mills 201 

Hoke, John 201 

Holt, E. M 185-201 

Hours of Work 38 

Humidifying 170 

Humphreys, HennTr 201 

Hydrants 160 

I 

INCREASING Profits of Cotton 

Production 17 

Indian Cotton 13 

Influence on Cost of Goods of Price 

of Cotton 61 

Labor 61 

Fuel 61 

Installment Plan 41 

Insurance 158 

Inventory 76-86 

In's'estments, Costs, Profits 50 



KLND of Goods to Make 56 

King, Mitchell 202 

LABOR 108: 

Labor Laws Ill 

Leak, J. W 186-202 

Leaksville 202 

Lighting Mills 168 

Location and Surroundings 34 

Lowell, History of Early Mills 236- 

Lowell Textile School 135 

MACHINERY for Roads 149 

Management of Mills 172' 

Manufacturing Account 76 

Manufacturing in South in 1810 4 

Mai-kets for Food Stuffs 17 

McDuffle, General 202 

Mecklenburg County Roads 143 

Mill Bookkeeping 74 

Mill Construction 158 

Mill Insurance 158 

Mill Floor 164 

Mill Reports 77-88 

MoMhly Reports 76 

Morehead, J. W 187-202 

Mount Hecla Mills 201 

Mountain Island 201 

Mutual Insurance 158 

TV 

NEGRO Labor 109 

New England Mills 193 

New England Mutual Insurance 158 

Night Work 38 

North Carolina Mills 196-200 

North Carolina Textile School .... 135 

O 

OIL, Cotton 8 

Oil Mill Products 8 

Oily Waste 162 

Operatives Houses 116- 

Operation of Various Size Mills.... 64 

Order of Business 29 

Organization of Com.pany 25- 

Origin of Installment Plan 41 



INDEX. 



PAY of OperaJtives 5>5 

Pay Roll Blank 80-98 

Per Cent, of CoWon in Cloth 5^-200 

Permanent Investment Account 76 

Philadelphia Textile School 135 

Pintle 164 

Plumbing 169 

Power 122 

Product per Spindle 73-200 

Profits in Cotton Production 15 

Profits in Cotton Manufacture. 

Tables-52-172 
Profiperity of Manufacituring' Com- 
munities 18 

RAISLXG Capital 39 

Repairs on Roads 152 

Richmond Mfg-. Co 202 

Road Building 142 

Road Machinery 149 

Road Tax 149 

SALARIES 30 

Sale of Products 128 

Sanitary Conditions 117 

Schenck, Michael 201 

Schools for Mill Villages 37 

Schumann, Dr 202 

Shipping Interests 24 

Size of Mills 52 

Skilled Operatives 57 

Slavery in New England 4 

South Carolina Mills 197-200 

South Carolina Railroad 108 

South Carolina Textile School 135 

Southern Labor 108 

Specifications Operatives Houses... 118 

Spindles in Unisted States 193-199 

Spindles in Southern States 194 

Spindles in World 199 

Sprinklers 159 

Statement Blanks 80-85 

Statistics 191-236 

Steam Heat 169 

Steam Power 122-170 

Stockholders Meeting 29 

Subscription List 25 

Superintendenits Reports 97 

Surplus 85 



TABLES. 

I. Single Yarn Mills... 

II. Single Yarn Mills . 

III. Single Yarn Mills. 

IV. Ply Yarn Mills ... 

V. Ply Yarn Mills 

VL Ply Yarn Mills 

Vn. Cloth Mills 



.... 64 
.... 65 
.... 66 
.... 67 
.... 68 
.... 69 
.... 70 

VIII. Cloth Mills 71 

IX. Cloth Mills 72 

X. Cotton Consumed per 1,000 
Spindles 73 

XL Statistics Mills in Uniited 
States 193 

XII. Statistics Mills in New 
England 19? 

XIII. Statistics Mills in Middle 
States 194 

XIV. Statistics Mills Southern 
States 194 

XV. . Sitatistics Mills Vir- 
ginia 19S 

XVI. Statistics Mills in Ken- 
tucky 195 

XVII. Statistics Mills in Ten- 
nessee 196 

XVIII. Statistics Mills in 
North Carolima I9ft 

XIX. Statistics Mills in South 
Carolina 197 

XX. Statistics Mills in Geor- 
gia 197 

XXI. Statistics Mills in Ala- 
bama 19S 

XXII. Statistics Mills in Miss- 
issippi 198 

XXIII. Distribution of Cotton 
Spindles in the World 199 

XXIV. No. Spindles in United 
States, 1800 to 1900. Also Val- 
ue of Goods Produced 199 

XXV. Manufactures in United 
States, 1850 to 1890 199 

XXVI. Production of Yarn per 
Spindle 2C(> 

XXVII. Counties Spinning in 
North Carolina and South 
Carolina More Cotton Than 
They Produce 200 

A. Early Mass. Mills 236 



IND-EX. 



T— Con. 

B. Price List Machinery, 1843.. 236 

C. Cost of Mill, 1S43 237 

D. Price List Machinery, 1843.. 237 

E. Wages List in Lowell, 1843., 238 

F. Price List Machinery, 1843.. 238 

G. Statistics Lowell Mills, 1825 

to 1841 239 

Tate, T. R 201 

Tec'hmical Education 133 

Testing Roads 154 

Textile Education 133 

Time Detector 162 

Transmission of Power 125 

Trcw Polytechnic .School 133 



"WARLICK, Absalom 201 

Waste 54, 78, 162 

Watchman's Clock 162 

Water Closets 169 

Water Power 122 

Water Required to Make Steam .... 123 

Windows 166 

Wood 125 

TARN Card Blank 132 

Yarn Market 128 

Tarn Mill Blank 77 



BY THE SAME AUTHOR. 



i III mim i iui 



PRICE, $5.00 

This is a book for the Mill Superintendent, the Overseer, and the 
Student who wants to learn the details of the business of running a 
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Anyone who understands the simple rules of arithmetic, may easily 
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IRottces of tbe ipreee* 



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Destined to make its impress, and that for good and usefulness, upon the 
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One of the best books ever published in the South. * * A perfect elemen- 
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Excelsior. 



BY THE SAME AUTHOR 

COTTON AND COTTON OIL. 

Now in Course of Preparation. 



PRICE, $5.00 



This book is a complete description of American methods of pro- 
ducing cotton, ginning it and putting it on the market. 

Taking the ground as the farmer finds it, there are detailed speci- 
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Every detail of ciilture is minutely described. 

All implements in use are fully illustrated and described. 

Cotton ginning is elaborately treated and profusely illustrated, 
showing the history of the subject from the earliest inventions to the 
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The different methods of baling cotton, including all of the round 
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A branch of this subject is the manufacture of fertilizers, where 
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sulphuric acid for this purpose. 

Another branch of the subject treated is the utilization of cotton 
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for stock. 



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